Reich’s iterated function systems and well-posedness via fixed point theory
- Shaoyuan Xu^{1}Email author,
- Suyu Cheng^{2} and
- Zuoling Zhou^{3}
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13663-015-0320-7
© Xu et al.; licensee Springer. 2015
Received: 5 February 2015
Accepted: 4 May 2015
Published: 16 May 2015
Abstract
In this paper, we prove the existence of the attractors for Reich’s iterated function systems by virtue of a Banach-like fixed point theorem. As a result, under the condition that the Reich contractions discussed are continuous, we give an affirmative answer to an open question posed by Singh et al. in 2009. In addition, we formulate a collage theorem for Reich’s iterated function systems.
Keywords
MSC
1 Introduction
Fixed point theory (see, for instance, [1–12]) plays an important role in iterated function systems as well as fractals (see [11–25]). As is well known, the simplest fractals are the self-similar sets, which are deemed to be the ‘fixed points’ of the Hutchinson-Barnsley operators in the setting of hyperspaces of compact sets of the original spaces endowed with the Pompeiu-Hausdorff metric. In order to describe such Hutchinson-Barnsley operators, one need utilize iterated function systems (see, for example, [11–15]). The concept of iterated function systems was introduced by Hutchinson in 1981 (see [13]) and popularized by Barnsley in 1998 (see [14]) as a natural generalization of the well-known Banach contraction principle. They represent one way of defining fractals as attractors of certain discrete dynamical systems. Moreover, they can be effectively applied to quantum physics, wavelets analysis, computer graphics and other applied sciences (see, for example, [26–32]). Therefore, it is no wonder that they have been attracting widespread attention of mathematicians and others for recent years (see, for example, [33–36]).
Since 1981, an increasing number of fractals has been yielded by iterated function systems (IFSs). For years, IFSs have become powerful tools for construction and analysis of new typical fractal sets. In order to construct a fractal, one usually draws support from known fixed point results obtained in the setting of appropriate spaces (see, for instance, [11–25]). In [23], Kashyap et al. obtained a new fractal from the Krasnoselskii fixed point theorem, generating the classical fractal set, which was introduced by Mandelbrot in 1982. Moreover, some open problems on IFS have been posed for the sake of theory and applications. In 2009, Singh et al. [24] posed an open question on IFS: In the IFS introduced by Hutchinson, can one replace the Banach contractions by the Reich contractions? In 2010, Sahu and Chakraborty [25] introduced K-iterated function system and obtained some interesting results related to the above-mentioned open question. In this paper, following Hutchinson and Sahu and Chakraborty, we present some new iterated function systems by using the so-called generalized contractive mappings (namely, the Hardy-Rogers type operators; see, for instance, [10, 11]), which will cover a much larger range of mappings. We obtain the attractors for a number of new iterated function systems by virtue of a Banach-like fixed point theorem concerning such generalized contractive mappings. It should be mentioned that among these new iterated function systems is Reich’s iterated function system. As a result, under the condition that the Reich contractions discussed are continuous, we give an affirmative answer to the above-mentioned open question posed by Singh et al. In addition, we show that the attractor, either for Hutchinson’s iterated function system or for the K-iterated function system, turns out to be the same as for Reich’s iterated function system which can be deduced by means of such a Banach-like fixed point theorem concerning such generalized contractive mappings. At last, we formulate a collage theorem for Reich’s iterated function systems.
2 Iterated function systems and an open question
In this section we first recall some well known aspects of iterated function system used in the sequel (more complete and rigorous treatments may be found in [13–15]). Then we present an interesting open question regarding an iterated function system associated with the Reich contractions, which was posed by Singh et al. in 2009.
Definition 2.1
Definition 2.2
Definition 2.3
Note that if \(M=0\), then the Reich contraction is reduced to a Banach contraction; if \(L=0\), then the Reich contraction is a Kannan contraction.
The following is the classical Banach contraction principle.
Theorem 2.1
Let \(T : X \to X\) be a contraction on a complete metric space \((X, d)\). Then T possesses exactly one fixed point \(x^{*}\in X\). Moreover, for any point \(x\in X\), the sequence \(\{T^{\circ n}(x): n = 0, 1, 2,\ldots\}\) converges to \(x^{*}\in X\). That is \(\lim_{n\to\infty}T^{\circ n}(x) = x^{*}\), for each \(x\in X\), where \(T^{\circ n}\) denotes the n-fold composition of T.
In the famous paper [13], Hutchinson proved that, given a set of contractions in a complete metric space X, there exists a unique nonempty compact set \(A\subset X\), named the attractor or fractal for the iterated function systems.
IFS generally employs contractive maps over a complete metric space \((X, d)\), where Banach’s celebrated result mentioned above guarantees the existence and uniqueness of the fixed point known as ‘attractor’ or ‘fractal’. This can be done since a Hutchinson-Barnsley operator is also a contraction over \(H(X)\), where \(H(X)\) denotes the space whose points are the compact subsets of X.
We now give some basic definitions and theorems concerning an iterated function system, which are used in the proofs below.
Note that the function h is the metric defined on the space \(H(X)\).
In IFS, the contractive maps act on the members of a Hausdorff space, i.e., the compact subsets of X. Thus, an iterated function system is defined as follows:
Hutchinson’s iterated function system consists of a complete metric space \((X,d)\) together with a finite set of continuous contractions \(T_{n}: X\to X\) with respect to contractivity factor \(s_{n}\), \(n = 1, 2, 3, \ldots, N\).
Similarly, a K-iterated function system consists of a complete metric space \((X,d)\) together with a finite set of continuous Kannan contractions \(T_{n} : X \to X\) with K-contractivity factor \(\alpha_{n}\), \(n = 1, 2, 3, \ldots ,N\).
We now present the existence of the attractor for Hutchinson’s IFS, i.e., the following theorem, which was given by Hutchinson or Barnsley (see [13, 14]).
Theorem 2.2
In 2009, Singh et al. [24] posed an open question regarding IFS associated with the Reich contractions as follows.
Question 2.1
([24])
Can one replace the Banach contractions in Theorem 2.2 (above) by the Reich contractions?
This precisely means whether the following is valid.
Theorem A
([24])
We remark that, in the condition (R) above, if \(M_{i} = 0\), then it reduces to the well-known Banach contraction condition and Theorem A reduces to above Theorem 2.2 (i.e., the existence theorem for attractor of Hutchinson’s IFS). Further, if \(L_{i} = 0\) and \(0\leq M_{i} < 1/2\), then the condition (R) is the well-known Kannan contraction. Singh et al. in [24] wrote that Theorem A is correct for \(L_{i} = 0\) and \(0 \leq M_{i}< 1/3\). They indicated that a proof for the general case, viz., \(L_{i} = 0\) and \(0 \leq M_{i}< 1/2\), is awaited. In 2010, Sahu and Chakraborty [25] gave a proof for such a general case as follows.
Theorem 2.3
([25])
In the subsequent section, we will prove that Theorem A above holds under the condition that the Reich contractions discussed are continuous, giving an affirmative answer to Question 2.1 with such an assumption.
3 New iterated function systems and an affirmative answer to the open question
In this section, we attempt to explore the possibility of improvement in IFS by replacing the Banach contraction condition or the Kannan contraction condition by a more general condition which is called, for convenience, the generalized contraction condition. One can easily see that such a condition generalizes not only the Banach contraction condition, but also the Kannan contraction condition. As a consequence, we can replace the Banach contractions in Theorem 2.2 (above) by the Reich contractions, thus give an affirmative answer to the above-mentioned open question (i.e., Question 2.1).
Now, we extend the Banach contraction and the Kannan contraction to the so-called generalized contractive mapping as follows.
Definition 3.1
Remark 3.1
It is easily seen that any of the Banach contractions, the Kannan contractions and the Reich contractions is a special case of the generalized contractive mapping.
Now let us first present the fixed point theorem for the generalized contractive mappings.
Remark 3.2
It should be noticed that the so-called generalized contraction mentioned in Definition 3.1 above is also called Hardy-Rogers type operator. Petrusel recently pointed out in his interesting paper that any Hardy-Rogers type operator is a Ćirić type operator, but the reverse implications do not hold (see [11] for details).
Proposition 3.1
Let \((X,d)\) be a complete metric space. Suppose that the mapping \(T:X\rightarrow X\) is a generalized contractive mapping satisfying (3.2). Then T has a unique fixed point p in X. Moreover, for any \(x_{0}\in X\), the Picard iterate \(\{ x_{n}\}\), where \(x_{n}=Tx_{n-1} \) (\(n=1,2, \ldots\)), converges to the fixed point p and satisfies \(d(x_{n}, p)\leq \frac{b^{n}}{1-b}d(Tx_{0},x_{0})\), where \(b=\frac{a+c+e}{1-c-e}\).
For the sake of completeness, we now give a sketch of the proof by three steps.
By means of Proposition 3.1, we easily get the following corollary, which is a Banach-like fixed point theorem.
Corollary 3.1
By the argument in the proof of Proposition 3.1, we easily obtain the following result.
Proposition 3.2
Remark 3.3
Remark 3.4
Proposition 3.1 generalizes the famous Banach contraction principle.
In order to present the new iterated function systems, we need the following lemmas.
Lemma 3.1
Proof
Lemma 3.2
Proof
Theorem 3.1
Let \((X,d)\) be a complete metric space. Suppose that the mappings \(T_{n}:X\rightarrow X\) are continuous and satisfy the Reich contractive condition as (3.7). Then the transformation \(T : H(X)\to H(X)\) defined by \(T(B) =\bigcup_{n=1}^{N}T_{n}(B)\) for all \(B \in H(X)\) also satisfies the Reich contractive condition (3.6). Its unique fixed point in (H(X), h(d)), which is also called an attractor, \(A \in H(X)\) obeys \(A=T(A) =\bigcup_{n=1}^{N}T_{N}(A)\) and is given by \(A =\lim_{n\to\infty} T^{\circ n}(B) \) for any \(B \in H(X)\).
Similar to Theorem 3.1, the following Theorem 3.2 can be deduced by the same method, so we omit its proof.
Theorem 3.2
Based on the above arguments from Lemma 3.1, Lemma 3.2 and Proposition 3.2, we are now in a position to formulate a collage theorem for Reich’s iterated function system.
Theorem 3.3
Remark 3.5
In Theorem 3.1, we obtain the attractors for Reich’s iterated function systems, which generalizes the main results concerning both the famous Hutchinson iterated function systems and the K-iterated function systems in [13] and [25], respectively.
Remark 3.6
Theorem 3.1 gives an affirmative answer to the above-mentioned open question (i.e., Question 2.1) under the condition that the Reich contractions discussed are continuous. Theorem 3.1 and Theorem 3.2 are a valuable addition to the main results of literature [13, 14, 24, 25].
Remark 3.7
Theorem 3.1 shows that the Hutchinson-Barnsley operator for Reich’s iterated function system is a Picard operator and its unique ‘fixed point’ is a single-valued fractal. Such is called single-valued fractal for single-valued Reich contractions. As for multi-valued fractals for self multi-valued operators and nonself multi-valued operators, we refer to [9, 12], respectively.
Remark 3.8
It should be noticed that Theorem 3.1 is a generalization of [22], Theorem 1 and Theorem 3.3 is a generalization of both [22], Theorem 2 and [37], Theorem 1. Hence, our main results in this paper may have potential applications to the complex polynomial hyperbolic NIFS (nonlinear iterated function system) mentioned in [22] and image compression referred to in [37].
Declarations
Acknowledgements
The authors are grateful to Professor MS EL Naschie for valuable comments on the original manuscript. Special thanks are due to the referees and the editor, who have made a number of valuable comments and useful suggestions, improving the original manuscript greatly. This research is supported in part by the foundation of the research item of Strong Department of Engineering Innovation of Hanshan Normal University, China (2013) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11371379).
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Authors’ Affiliations
References
- Agarwal, RP, Meehan, M, O’Regan, D: Fixed Point Theory and Applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2001) View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Granas, A, Dugundji, J: Fixed Point Theory. Springer, New York (2003) View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Rus, IA, Petrusel, A, Petrusel, G: Fixed Point Theory. Cluj University Press, Cluj (2008) MATHGoogle Scholar
- Banach, S: Sur les opérations dans les ensembles abstraits et leur application aux équations intégrales. Fundam. Math. 3, 133-181 (1922) MATHGoogle Scholar
- Kannan, R: Some results on fixed points. II. Am. Math. Mon. 76, 405-408 (1969) View ArticleMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Reich, S: Kannan’s fixed point theorem. Boll. Unione Mat. Ital. 4, 1-11 (1971) MATHGoogle Scholar
- Reich, S: Some remarks concerning contraction mappings. Can. Math. Bull. 14, 121-124 (1971) View ArticleMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Reich, S: Fixed points of contractive mappings. Boll. Unione Mat. Ital. 5, 17-31 (1972) Google Scholar
- Reich, S: Fixed points of contractive functions. Boll. Unione Mat. Ital. 5, 26-42 (1972) MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Hardy, GE, Rogers, TG: Generalization of a fixed point theorem of Reich. Can. Math. Bull. 16, 201-206 (1973) View ArticleMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Petrusel, A: Ćirić type fixed point theorems. Stud. Univ. Babeş-Bolyai, Math. 59(2), 233-245 (2014) MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Petrusel, A, Rus, IA, Serban, MA: Fixed points, fixed sets and iterated multifunction systems for nonself multivalued operators. Set-Valued Var. Anal. (2014). doi:10.1007/s11228-014-0291-6 MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Hutchinson, JE: Fractals and self similarity. Indiana Univ. Math. J. 30, 713-747 (1981) View ArticleMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Barnsley, MF: Fractals Everywhere. Academic Press, New York (1998) MATHGoogle Scholar
- Falconer, KJ: Fractal Geometry: Mathematical Foundations and Applications. Wiley, New York (1990) MATHGoogle Scholar
- Wicks, KR: Fractals and Hyperspaces. Lecture Notes in Mathematics, vol. 1492. Springer, Berlin (1991) MATHGoogle Scholar
- Petrusel, A: Fixed point theory with applications to dynamical systems and fractals. In: International Conference on Nonlinear Operators, Differential Equations and Applications. Semin Fixed Point Theory Cluj-Napoca, vol. 3, pp. 305-315 (2002) Google Scholar
- Boriceanu, M, Bota, M, Petrusel, A: Multivalued fractals in b-metric spaces. Cent. Eur. J. Math. 8(2), 376-377 (2010) View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Chifu, C, Petrusel, G: Well-posedness and fractals via fixed point theory. Fixed Point Theory Appl. 2008, Article ID 645419 (2008) View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Fiser, J: Iterated Function and Multifunction Systems; Attractors and Their Basins of Attraction. PhD thesis, Palacksy University, Olomouc, Czech (2002) Google Scholar
- Mihail, A, Miculescu, R: Applications of fixed point theorems in the theory of generalized IFS. Fixed Point Theory Appl. 2008, Article ID 312876 (2008) View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Wang, XY, Li, FP: A class of nonlinear iterated function system attractors. Nonlinear Anal. 70, 830-838 (2009) View ArticleMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Kashyap, SK, Sharma, BK, Banerjee, A: On Krasnoselskii fixed point theorem and fractal. Chaos Solitons Fractals 61, 44-45 (2014) View ArticleMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Singh, SL, Prasad, B, Kumar, A: Fractals via iterated functions and multifunctions. Chaos Solitons Fractals 39, 1224-1231 (2009) View ArticleMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Sahu, DR, Chakraborty, A: K-Iterated function system. Fractals 18(1), 139-144 (2010) View ArticleMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Block, L, Keesling, J: Iterated function systems and the code space. Topol. Appl. 122, 65-75 (2002) View ArticleMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- El Naschie, MS: Iterated function systems and the two-slit experiment of quantum mechanics. Chaos Solitons Fractals 4(10), 1965-1968 (1994) View ArticleMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- El Naschie, MS: Iterated function systems, information and the two-slit experiment of quantum mechanics. In: El Naschie, MS, Rossler, OE, Prigogine, I (eds.) Quantum Mechanics, Diffusion and Chaotic Fractals, pp. 185-189. Elsevier, Oxford (1995) Google Scholar
- Slomczynski, W: Institute from quantum entropy to iterated function systems. Chaos Solitons Fractals 8(11), 1861-1864 (1997) View ArticleMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Daya Sagar, BS, Rangarajan, G, Veneziano, D: Preface. Fractals in geophysics. Chaos Solitons Fractals 19, 237-239 (2004) View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Bohnstengel, J, Kesseböhmer, M: Wavelets for iterated function systems. J. Funct. Anal. 259, 583-601 (2010) View ArticleMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Freiberg, U, Torre, DL, Mendivil, F: Iterated function systems and stability of variational problems on self-similar objects. Nonlinear Anal., Real World Appl. 12, 1123-1129 (2011) View ArticleMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Barnsleya, M, Vince, A: The eigenvalue problem for linear and affine iterated function systems. Linear Algebra Appl. 435, 3124-3138 (2011) View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Secelean, NA: Generalized iterated function systems on the space \(l^{\infty}(X)\). J. Math. Anal. Appl. 410, 847-858 (2014) View ArticleMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Dumitru, D, Ioana, L, Sfetcu, RC, Strobin, F: Topological version of generalized (infinite) iterated function systems. Chaos Solitons Fractals 71, 78-90 (2015) View ArticleMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Yao, YY: Generating iterated function systems of some planar self-similar sets. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 421, 938-949 (2015) View ArticleMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Drakopoulos, V, Bouboulis, P, Theodoridis, S: Image compression using affine fractal interpolation on rectangular lattices. Fractals 14(4), 259-269 (2006) View ArticleMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar