Open Access

Demiclosed principle and convergence theorems for total asymptoticallynonexpansive nonself mappings in hyperbolic spaces

Fixed Point Theory and Applications20152015:4

Received: 18 June 2014

Accepted: 26 November 2014

Published: 16 January 2015


In this paper, we prove the demiclosed principle for total asymptoticallynonexpansive nonself mappings in hyperbolic spaces. Then we obtain convergencetheorems of the mixed Agarwal-O’Regan-Sahu type iteration for totalasymptotically nonexpansive nonself mappings. Our results extend some results inthe literature.

MSC: 47H09, 49M05.


total asymptotically nonexpansive nonself mappingshyperbolic space-convergence

1 Introduction

One of the fundamental and celebrated results in the theory of nonexpansive mappingsis Browder’s demiclosed principle[1] which states that if X is a uniformly convex Banach space,C is a nonempty closed convex subset of X, and if is a nonexpansive nonself mapping, then is demiclosed at 0, that is, for any sequence in C if weakly and , then (where I is the identity mapping inX). Later, Chidume et al.[2] proved the demiclosed principle for asymptotically nonexpansive nonselfmappings in uniformly convex Banach spaces. Recently, Chang et al.[3] proved the demiclosed principle for total asymptotically nonexpansivenonself mappings in CAT(0) spaces. It is well known that the demiclosed principleplays an important role in studying the asymptotic behavior for nonexpansivemappings. The purpose of this paper is to extend Chang’s result from CAT(0)spaces to the general setup of uniformly convex hyperbolic spaces. We also apply ourresult to approximate common fixed points of total asymptotically nonexpansivenonself mappings in hyperbolic spaces, using the mixed Agarwal-O’Regan-Sahutype iterative scheme [4]. Our results extend and improve the corresponding results of Chang etal.[3], Nanjaras and Panyanak [5], Chang et al.[6], Zhao et al.[7], Khan et al.[8] and many other recent results.

In this paper, we work in the setting of hyperbolic spaces introduced by Kohlenbach [9]. Concretely, is called a hyperbolic space if is a metric space and a function satisfying
  1. (I)

    , , ;

  2. (II)

    , , ;

  3. (III)

    , , ;

  4. (IV)

    , , .


If a space satisfies only (I), it coincides with the convex metric space introducedby Takahashi [10]. The concept of hyperbolic spaces in [9] is more restrictive than the hyperbolic type introduced by Goebel andKirk [11] since (I)-(III) together are equivalent to being a space of hyperbolic type in [11]. But it is slightly more general than the hyperbolic space defined inReich and Shafrir [12] (see [9]). This class of metric spaces in [9] covers all normed linear spaces, -trees in the sense of Tits, theHilbert ball with the hyperbolic metric (see [13]), Cartesian products of Hilbert balls, Hadamard manifolds (see [12, 14]), and CAT(0) spaces in the sense of Gromov (see [15]). A thorough discussion of hyperbolic spaces and a detailed treatment ofexamples can be found in [9] (see also [1113]).

A hyperbolic space is uniformly convex[16] if for , , and there exists a such that

provided that , , and .

A map is called modulus of uniform convexity if for given . The function η is monotone ifit decreases with r (for a fixed ϵ), that is,

A subset C of a hyperbolic space X is convex if for all and .

Let be a metric space and let C be a nonemptysubset of X. C is said to be a retract of X, ifthere exists a continuous map such that , . A map is said to be a retraction, if . If P is a retraction, then for all y in the range of P. Recallthat a nonself mapping is said to be a -total asymptotically nonexpansive nonselfmapping if there exist nonnegative sequences , with , , and a strictly increasing continuous function with such that

where P is a nonexpansive retraction of X onto C. It iswell known that each nonexpansive mapping is an asymptotically nonexpansive mappingand each asymptotically nonexpansive mapping is a -total asymptotically nonexpansive mapping.

is said to be uniformlyL-Lipschitzian if there exists a constant such that

2 Preliminaries

We now give the concept of -convergence and collect some of its properties.Let be a bounded sequence in a hyperbolic spaceX. For , we define
The asymptotic radius of is given by
The asymptotic radius of with respect to is given by
The asymptotic center of is the set
The asymptotic center of with respect to is the set

Recall that a sequence in X is said to -converge to if x is the unique asymptotic center of for every subsequence of . In this case we call x the-limit of .

Lemma 1[17, 18]

Let be a complete uniformly convex hyperbolic space with monotone modulus of uniformconvexity andCa nonempty closed convex subset ofX. Then every bounded sequence inXhas a unique asymptotic center with respect toC.

Lemma 2[17]

Let be a uniformly convex hyperbolic space with monotone modulus of uniformconvexityη. Let and be a sequence in for some . If and are sequences inXsuch that , , and for some . Then

Lemma 3[3]

Let , , and be sequences of nonnegative numbers such that

If and , then exists.

3 Main results

We shall prove that a total asymptotically nonexpansive nonself mapping in a completeuniformly convex hyperbolic space X with monotone modulus of uniformconvexity is demiclosed. We need the following notation:

where C is a closed convex subset which contains the bounded sequence and .

Theorem 1 (Demiclosed principle for total asymptotically nonexpansive nonselfmappings in hyperbolic spaces)

Let be a complete uniformly convex hyperbolic space with monotone modulus of uniformconvexityη. LetCbe a nonempty closed and convex subset ofX. Let be a uniformlyL-Lipschitzian and -total asymptotically nonexpansive nonselfmapping. Pis a nonexpansive retraction ofXontoC. Let be a bounded approximate fixed point sequence, i.e., and . Then we have .

Proof By the definition, if and only if . By Lemma 1, we have . Since , by induction we can prove that
In fact, it is obvious that the conclusion is true for . Suppose the conclusion holds for , now we prove that it is also true for . Indeed, since T is uniformlyL-Lipschitzian, we have
Equation (2) is proved. Hence for each and , from (2) we have
Taking , in (3), then by (1) we get
Letting and taking superior limit on the both sides, we have
Assume that . Then does not converge to p, so we can find , for any , that there exists such that . We can assume . Then and there exist such that
By the definition of Φ and (4), for the above θ, there exists such that
For M, there exists such that
Since X is uniformly convex and η is monotone, applying (5)we have

Since , we have got a contradiction with . It follows that and the proof is completed. □

Theorem 2LetCbe a nonempty closed and convex subset of a complete uniformly convex hyperbolicspaceXwith monotone modulus of uniform convexityη. Let , , be uniformlyL-Lipschitzian and -total asymptotically nonexpansive nonselfmappings. For arbitrarily chosen , is defined as follows:
wherePis a nonexpansive retraction ofXontoC. Assume that and the following conditions are satisfied:
  1. (i)

    and ;

  2. (ii)

    there exist constants such that ;

  3. (iii)

    there exists a constant such that , ,


then the sequence defined by (6) -converges to a point in .

Proof We divide our proof into three steps.

Step 1. In the sequel, we shall show that
In fact, by conditions (1), (I), and (iii), we get
Combining (8) and (9), we have
where , . Furthermore, using the condition (i), we have

Consequently, a combination of (10), (11), and Lemma 3 shows that (7) isproved.

Step 2. We claim that
In fact, it follows from (7) that exists for each given . Without loss of generality, we assume that
By (8) and (13), we have
by (14) we have
Besides, by (10) we get
which yields
Now by (13), (15), (16), and Lemma 2, we have
Using the same method, we also have
By virtue of (18), we get
Combining (17) and (19), we obtain
Moreover, it follows from (17) that
Now by (18), (20), and (21), for each , we get

Therefore, (12) holds.

Step 3. Now we are in a position to prove the -convergence of . Since is bounded, by Lemma 1, it has a uniqueasymptotic center . Let be any subsequence of with . Since , it follow from Theorem 1 that . By the uniqueness of asymptotic centers, we get . It implies that is the unique asymptotic center of for each subsequence of , that is, -converges to . The proof is completed. □

Example 1 Let be the real line with the usual norm and let . Define two mappings by
It is proved in [[19], Example 3.1] that both and are asymptotically nonexpansive mappings with , . Therefore, they are total asymptoticallynonexpansive mappings with , , , . Additionally, they are uniformlyL-Lipschitzian mappings with . and . Let

Therefore, the conditions of Theorem 2 are fulfilled.

Example 2 Let be the real line with the usual norm and let . Define two mappings by

It is proved in [[20], Example 1] that both and are total asymptotically nonexpansive mappings with , , . Moreover, they are uniformly L-Lipschitzianmappings with . and . Let , be the same as in (22). Therefore, the conditions ofTheorem 2 are fulfilled.

Theorem 3Under the assumptions of Theorem 2, if one of and is demi-compact, then the sequence defined by (6)converges strongly (i.e., in the metrictopology) to a common fixed point in .

Proof By (12) and the assumption that one of and is demi-compact, there exists a subsequence such that converges strongly to some point . Then by the continuity of and , we get

which implies that . It follows from (7) that exists and thus . The proof is completed. □

Theorem 4Under the assumptions of Theorem 2, if there exists anondecreasing function with , , such that

then the sequence defined by (6) converges strongly(i.e., in the metric topology) to a common fixedpoint in .

Proof By (12) and (23) we obtain . Since f is nondecreasing with , , , we have
Now we prove that is a Cauchy sequence in C. In fact, itfollows from (10) that, for any ,
where and . Then, for any and any positive integers n, m, weget
Since for each , , we obtain
where . It follows from (24) that

Thus is a Cauchy sequence in C. C iscomplete for it is a closed subset in a complete hyperbolic space. Without loss ofgenerality, we can assume that converges strongly to some point . It is easy to prove that is closed. Itfollows from (24) that . The proof is completed. □



Supported by General Project of Educational Department in Sichuan (No. 13ZB0182)and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11426190).

Authors’ Affiliations

School of Science, Southwest University of Science and Technology


  1. Browder FE: Semicontractive and semiaccretive nonlinear mappings in Banach spaces.Bull. Am. Math. Soc. 1968, 74:660–665. 10.1090/S0002-9904-1968-11983-4MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. Chidume CE, Ofoedu EU, Zegeye H: Strong and weak convergence theorems for asymptotically nonexpansivemappings.J. Math. Anal. Appl. 2003, 280:364–374. 10.1016/S0022-247X(03)00061-1MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. Chang SS, Wang L, Joesph Lee HW, Chan CK: Strong and -convergence for mixed type total asymptoticallynonexpansive mappings in CAT(0) spaces.Fixed Point Theory Appl. 2013., 2013: Article ID 122 10.1186/1687-1812-2013-122Google Scholar
  4. Agarwal RP, O’Regan D, Sahu DR: Iterative construction of fixed points of nearly asymptotically nonexpansivemappings.J. Nonlinear Convex Anal. 2007, 8:61–79.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. Nanjaras B, Panyanak B: Demiclosed principle for asymptotically nonexpansive mappings in CAT(0)spaces.Fixed Point Theory Appl. 2010., 2010: Article ID 268780 10.1155/2010/268780Google Scholar
  6. Chang SS, Wang L, Joseph Lee HW, Chan CK, Yang L: Demiclosed principle and -convergence theorems for totalasymptotically nonexpansive mappings in CAT(0) spaces.Appl. Math. Comput. 2012, 219:2611–2617. 10.1016/j.amc.2012.08.095MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. Zhao LC, Chang SS, Kim JK: Mixed type iteration for total asymptotically nonexpansive mappings inhyperbolic spaces.Fixed Point Theory Appl. 2013., 2013: Article ID 353 10.1186/1687-1812-2013-353Google Scholar
  8. Khan AR, Fukhar-ud-din H, Kalsoom A, Lee BS: Convergence of a general algorithm of asymptotically nonexpansive maps inuniformly convex hyperbolic spaces.Appl. Math. Comput. 2014, 238:547–556.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. Kohlenbach U: Some logical metatheorems with applications in functional analysis.Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 2005, 357:89–128. 10.1090/S0002-9947-04-03515-9MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. Takahashi W: A convexity in metric spaces and nonexpansive mappings.Kodai Math. Semin. Rep. 1970, 22:142–149. 10.2996/kmj/1138846111MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. Goebel K, Kirk WA: Iteration processes for nonexpansive mappings. Contemporary Mathematics 21. In Topological Methods in Nonlinear Functional Analysis. Edited by: Singh SP, Thomeier S, Watson B. Am. Math. Soc., Provindence; 1983:115–123.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  12. Reich S, Shafrir I: Nonexpansive iterations in hyperbolic spaces.Nonlinear Anal., Theory Methods Appl. 1990, 15:537–558. 10.1016/0362-546X(90)90058-OMathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. Goebel K, Reich S: Uniform Convexity, Hyperbolic Geometry, and Nonexpansive Mappings. Dekker, New York; 1984.MATHGoogle Scholar
  14. Reich S, Zaslavski AJ: Generic aspects of metric fixed point theory. In Handbook of Metric Fixed Point Theory. Edited by: Kirk WA, Sims B. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht; 2001:557–576.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  15. Bridson M, Haefliger A: Metric Spaces of Non-Positive Curvature. Springer, Berlin; 1999.View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. Shimizu T, Takahashi W: Fixed points of multivalued mappings in certain convex metric spaces.Topol. Methods Nonlinear Anal. 1996, 8:197–203.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. Khan AR, Fukhar-ud-din H, Khan MAA: An implicit algorithm for two finite families of nonexpansive maps inhyperbolic spaces.Fixed Point Theory Appl. 2012., 2012: Article ID 54 10.1186/1687-1812-2012-54Google Scholar
  18. Leustean L: Nonexpansive iterations in uniformly convexW-hyperbolic spaces. Contemporary Mathematics 513. In Nonlinear Analysis and Optimization I: Nonlinear Analysis. Edited by: Leizarowitz A, Mordukhovich BS, Shafrir I, Zaslavski A. Am. Math. Soc., Providence; 2010:193–209.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  19. Guo WP, Cho YJ, Guo W: Convergence theorems for mixed type asymptotically nonexpansive mappings.Fixed Point Theory Appl. 2012., 2012: Article ID 224 10.1186/1687-1812-2012-224Google Scholar
  20. Kiziltunc H, Yolacan E: Strong convergence theorems for two total asymptotically nonexpansive nonselfmappings in Banach spaces.Fixed Point Theory Appl. 2013., 2013: Article ID 90 10.1186/1687-1812-2013-90Google Scholar


© Wan; licensee Springer. 2015

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative CommonsAttribution License (, which permitsunrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided theoriginal work is properly credited.