- Research
- Open Access
On the convergence of fixed points for Lipschitz type mappings in hyperbolic spaces
- Shin Min Kang^{1}Email author,
- Samir Dashputre^{2},
- Bhuwan Lal Malagar^{2} and
- Arif Rafiq^{3}
https://doi.org/10.1186/1687-1812-2014-229
© Kang et al.; licensee Springer. 2014
- Received: 17 April 2014
- Accepted: 31 October 2014
- Published: 12 November 2014
Abstract
In this paper, we prove strong and Δ-convergence theorems for a class of mappings which is essentially wider than that of asymptotically nonexpansive mappings on hyperbolic space through the S-iteration process introduced by Agarwal et al. (J. Nonlinear Convex Anal. 8:61-79, 2007) which is faster and independent of the Mann (Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 4:506-510, 1953) and Ishikawa (Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 44:147-150, 1974) iteration processes. Our results generalize, extend, and unify the corresponding results of Abbas et al. (Math. Comput. Model. 55:1418-1427, 2012), Agarwal et al. (J. Nonlinear Convex Anal. 8:61-79, 2007), Dhompongsa and Panyanak (Comput. Math. Appl. 56:2572-2579, 2008), and Khan and Abbas (Comput. Math. Appl. 61:109-116, 2011).
MSC:47H10.
Keywords
- S-iteration process
- uniformly convex hyperbolic space
- nearly asymptotically nonexpansive mapping
1 Introduction
The class of asymptotically nonexpansive mappings, introduced by Goebel and Kirk [1] in 1972, is an important generalization of the class of nonexpansive mapping and they proved that if C is a nonempty closed and bounded subset of a uniformly convex Banach space, then every asymptotically nonexpansive self-mapping of C has a fixed point.
There are numerous papers dealing with the approximation of fixed points of nonexpansive and asymptotically nonexpansive mappings in uniformly convex Banach spaces through modified Mann and Ishikawa iteration processes (see, e.g., [2–9] and references therein). The class of Lipschitz mappings is larger than the classes of nonexpansive and asymptotically nonexpansive mappings. However, the theory of the computation of fixed points of non-Lipschitz mappings is equally important and interesting. There are few a results in this direction (see, e.g., [10–13]).
In 1976, Lim [14] introduced a concept of convergence in a general metric space setting which he called ‘Δ-convergence’. In 2008, Kirk and Panyanak [15] specialized Lim’s concept to $CAT(0)$ spaces and showed that many Banach space results involving weak convergence have precise analogs in this setting. Since then, the existence problem and the Δ-convergence problem of iterative sequences to a fixed point for nonexpansive mapping, asymptotically nonexpansive mapping, nearly asymptotically nonexpansive, asymptotically nonexpansive mapping in intermediate sense, asymptotically nonexpansive nonself-mapping via Picard, Mann [16], Ishikawa [17], Agarwal et al. [18] in the framework of $CAT(0)$ space have been rapidly developed and many papers have appeared in this direction (see, e.g., [19–23]).
The purpose of the paper is to establish Δ-convergence as well as strong convergence through the S-iteration process for a class of mappings which is essentially wider than that of asymptotically nonexpansive mappings on a nonlinear domain, uniformly convex hyperbolic space which includes both uniformly convex Banach spaces and $CAT(0)$ spaces. Therefore, our results extend and improve the corresponding ones proved by Abbas et al. [19], Dhompongsa and Panyanak [22], Khan and Abbas [23] and many other results in this direction.
2 Preliminaries
Let $F(T)=\{Tx=x:x\in C\}$ denotes the set of fixed point. We begin with the following definitions.
- (1)uniformly L-Lipschitzian if for each $n\in \mathbb{N}$, there exists a positive number $L>0$ such that$d({T}^{n}x,{T}^{n}y)\le Ld(x,y)\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}\text{for all}x,y\in C;$
- (2)asymptotically nonexpansive if there exists a sequence $\{{k}_{n}\}$ in $[0,\mathrm{\infty})$ with ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{k}_{n}=0$ such that$d({T}^{n}x,{T}^{n}y)\le (1+{k}_{n})d(x,y)\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}\text{for all}x,y\in C\text{and}n\in \mathbb{N};$
- (3)asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive if $F(T)\ne \mathrm{\varnothing}$ and there exists a sequence $\{{k}_{n}\}$ in $[0,\mathrm{\infty})$ with ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{k}_{n}=0$ such that$d({T}^{n}{x}_{n},p)\le (1+{k}_{n})d({x}_{n},p)\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}\text{for all}x\in C,p\in F(T)\text{and}n\in \mathbb{N}.$
The class of nearly Lipschitzian mappings is an important generalization of the class of Lipschitzian mappings and was introduced by Sahu [11].
The infimum of the constants ${k}_{n}$ for which (2.1) holds is denoted by $\eta ({T}^{n})$ and is called the nearly Lipschitz constant of ${T}^{n}$.
- (4)
nearly nonexpansive if $\eta ({T}^{n})=1$ for all $n\in \mathbb{N}$;
- (5)
nearly asymptotically nonexpansive if $\eta ({T}^{n})\ge 1$ for all $n\in \mathbb{N}$ and ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}\eta ({T}^{n})=1$;
- (6)
nearly uniformly k-Lipschitzian if $\eta ({T}^{n})\le k$ for all $n\in \mathbb{N}$.
for all $x\in C$, $p\in F(T)$ and $n\in \mathbb{N}$.
In fact, if T is a nearly asymptotically nonexpansive mapping and $F(T)$ is nonempty, then T is a nearly asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive mapping. The following is an example of a nearly asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive mapping with $F(T)\ne \varphi $.
Example 2.4 [19]
Here, $F(T)=\{0\}$ and also, T is nearly asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive mapping with $\{{u}_{n}\}=\{1,\frac{1}{2},\frac{1}{{2}^{2}},\frac{1}{{2}^{3}},\dots \}$ and $\{{a}_{n}\}=\{1,\frac{1}{2},\frac{1}{{2}^{2}},\frac{1}{{2}^{3}},\dots \}$.
for all $x\in C$, $p\in F(T)$ and $n\in \mathbb{N}$.
The following example shows that T is a nearly quasi-nonexpansive mapping but not Lipschitzian and quasi-nonexpansive.
Example 2.5 [19]
Clearly, T is a nearly quasi-nonexpansive mapping with respect to $\{{a}_{n}\}$ and it is not Lipschitz and not quasi-nonexpansive.
Lemma 2.6 [[19], Lemma 2.11]
If $\{{x}_{n}\}$ is a sequence in C such that ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}d({x}_{n},F(T))=0$ and ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{x}_{n}=x\in C$, where $d(x,F(T))=inf\{d(x,p):p\in F(T)\}$, then x is a fixed point of T.
Throughout this paper we consider the following definition of a hyperbolic space introduced by Kohlenbach [24]. It is worth noting that they are different from the Gromov hyperbolic space [25] or from other notions of hyperbolic space that can be found in the literature (see, e.g., [26–28]).
- (i)
$d(u,W(x,y,\alpha ))\le \alpha d(u,x)+(1-\alpha )d(u,y)$,
- (ii)
$d(W(x,y,\alpha ),W(x,y,\beta ))=|\alpha -\beta |d(x,y)$,
- (iii)
$W(x,y,\alpha )=W(y,x,(1-\alpha ))$,
- (iv)
$d(W(x,z,\alpha ),W(y,w,\alpha ))\le \alpha d(x,y)+(1-\alpha )d(z,w)$
for all $x,y,z,w\in X$ and $\alpha ,\beta \in [0,1]$.
An important example of a hyperbolic space is a $CAT(0)$ space. It is nonlinear in nature and its brief introduction is as follows.
A metric space $(X,d)$ is a length space if any two points of X are joined by a rectifiable path (that is, a path of finite length) and the distance between any two points of X is taken to be the infimum of the lengths of all rectifiable paths joining them. In this case, d is known as a length metric (otherwise an inner metric or intrinsic metric). In the case that no rectifiable path joins two points of the space, the distance between them is taken to be ∞.
A geodesic path joining $x\in X$ to $y\in X$ is a map c from a closed interval $[0,l]\subset \mathbb{R}$ to X such that $c(0)=x$, $c(l)=y$, and $d(c(t),c({t}^{\prime}))=|t-{t}^{\prime}|$ for all $t,{t}^{\prime}\in [0,l]$. In particular, c is an isometry and $d(x,y)=l$. The image α of c is called a geodesic (or metric) segment joining x and y. The space $(X,d)$ is said to be a geodesic space if any two points of X are joined by a geodesic path and X is said to be uniquely geodesic if there is exactly one geodesic path denoted by $\alpha x\oplus (1-\alpha )y$ joining x and y for each $x,y\in X$. The set $\{\alpha x\oplus (1-\alpha )y:\alpha \in [0,1]\}$ will be denoted by $[x,y]$, called the segment joining x to y. A subset C of a geodesic space X is convex if for any $x,y\in C$, we have $[x,y]\subset C$.
A geodesic triangle $\mathrm{\Delta}({x}_{1},{x}_{2},{x}_{3})$ in a geodesic metric space $(X,d)$ is defined to be a collection of three points in X (the vertices of Δ) and three geodesic segments between each pair of vertices (the edges of Δ). A comparison triangle for geodesic triangle $\mathrm{\Delta}({x}_{1},{x}_{2},{x}_{3})$ in $(X,d)$ is a triangle $\overline{\mathrm{\Delta}}({x}_{1},{x}_{2},{x}_{3}):=\mathrm{\Delta}({\overline{x}}_{1},{\overline{x}}_{2},{\overline{x}}_{3})$ in ${\mathbb{R}}^{2}$ such that ${d}_{{\mathbb{R}}^{2}}({\overline{x}}_{i},{\overline{x}}_{j})=d({x}_{i},{x}_{j})$ for $i,j\in \{1,2,3\}$ and such a triangle always exists (see [25]).
for all $x,y\in \mathrm{\Delta}$ and for all comparison points $\overline{x},\overline{y}\in \overline{\mathrm{\Delta}}$. Let X be a $CAT(0)$ space. Define $W:{X}^{2}\times [0,1]\to X$ by $W(x,y,\alpha )=\alpha x\oplus (1-\alpha )y$. Then W satisfies the four properties of a hyperbolic space. Also if X is a Banach space and $W(x,y,\alpha )=\alpha x+(1-\alpha )y$, then X is a hyperbolic space. Therefore, our hyperbolic space represents a unified approach for both linear and nonlinear structures simultaneously.
To elaborate that there are hyperbolic spaces which are not imbedded in any Banach space, we give the following example.
Then B is a hyperbolic space which is not imbedded in any Banach space.
A metric space $(X,d)$ is called a convex metric space introduced by Takahashi [29] if it satisfies only (i). A subset C of a hyperbolic space X is convex if $W(x,y,\alpha )\in C$ for all $x,y\in C$ and $\alpha \in [0,1]$.
A hyperbolic space $(X,d,W)$ is uniformly convex [30] if for any $u,x,y\in X$, $r>0$ and $\u03f5\in (0,2]$, there exists a $\delta \in (0,1]$ such that $d(W(x,y,\frac{1}{2}),u)\le (1-\delta )r$ whenever $d(x,u)\le r$, $d(y,u)\le r$ and $d(x,y)\ge \u03f5r$.
A mapping $\eta :(0,\mathrm{\infty})\times (0,2]\to (0,1]$ which provides such a $\delta =\eta (r,\u03f5)$ for given $r>0$ and $\u03f5\in (0,2]$, is known as modulus of uniform convexity. We call η monotone if it decreases with r (for a fixed ϵ).
The hyperbolic space introduced by Kohlenbach [24] is slightly restrictive than the space of hyperbolic type [26] but general than hyperbolic space of [28]. Moreover, this class of hyperbolic spaces also contains Hadamard manifolds, Hilbert balls equipped with the hyperbolic metric [31], ℝ-trees and Cartesian products of Hilbert balls as special cases.
This is the set of minimizers of the functional ${r}_{a}(\cdot ,\{{x}_{n}\})$. If the asymptotic center is taken with respect to X, then it is simply denoted by $A(\{{x}_{n}\})$.
It is well known that uniformly convex Banach spaces and even $CAT(0)$ spaces enjoy the property that bounded sequences have unique asymptotic centers with respect to closed convex subsets. The following lemma is due to Leustean [32] and ensures that this property also holds in a complete uniformly convex hyperbolic space.
Lemma 2.9 [32]
Let $(X,d,W)$ be a complete uniformly convex hyperbolic space with monotone modulus of uniform convexity. Then every bounded sequence $\{{x}_{n}\}$ in X has a unique asymptotic center with respect to any nonempty closed convex subset C of X.
Recall that a sequence $\{{x}_{n}\}$ in X is said to Δ-converge to $x\in X$, if x is the unique asymptotic center of $\{{u}_{n}\}$ for every subsequence $\{{u}_{n}\}$ of $\{{x}_{n}\}$. In this case, we write $\mathrm{\Delta}\text{-}{lim}_{n}{x}_{n}=x$ and call x the Δ-limit of $\{{x}_{n}\}$.
Lemma 2.10 [33]
Let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of a uniformly convex hyperbolic space and $\{{x}_{n}\}$ a bounded sequence in C such that ${A}_{C}(\{{x}_{n}\})=\{y\}$ and $r(\{{x}_{n}\})=\rho $. If $\{{y}_{m}\}$ is another sequence in C such that ${lim}_{m\to \mathrm{\infty}}{r}_{a}({y}_{m},\{{x}_{n}\})=\rho $, then ${lim}_{m\to \mathrm{\infty}}{y}_{m}=y$.
Lemma 2.11 [33]
for some $c\ge 0$, then ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}d({x}_{n},{y}_{n})=0$.
Lemma 2.12 [5]
If ${\beta}_{n}\ge 1$ for all $n\in \mathbb{N}$, ${\sum}_{n=1}^{\mathrm{\infty}}({\beta}_{n}-1)<\mathrm{\infty}$ and ${\gamma}_{n}<\mathrm{\infty}$, then ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{\delta}_{n}$ exists.
3 Strong and Δ-convergence theorems in hyperbolic space
In this section, we approximate fixed point for nearly asymptotically nonexpansive mappings in a hyperbolic space. More briefly, we established Δ-convergence and strong convergence theorems for iteration scheme (3.1).
First, we define the S-iteration process in hyperbolic space as follows.
where $\{{\alpha}_{n}\}$ and $\{{\beta}_{n}\}$ are sequences in $(0,1)$ is called an S-iteration process.
Lemma 3.1 Let C be a nonempty convex subset of a hyperbolic space X and $T:C\to C$ a nearly asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive mapping with sequence $\{({a}_{n},{u}_{n})\}$ such that ${\sum}_{n=1}^{\mathrm{\infty}}{a}_{n}<\mathrm{\infty}$ and ${\sum}_{n=1}^{\mathrm{\infty}}{u}_{n}<\mathrm{\infty}$. Let $\{{x}_{n}\}$ be a sequence in C defined by (3.1), where $\{{\alpha}_{n}\}$ and $\{{\beta}_{n}\}$ are sequences in $(0,1)$. Then ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}d({x}_{n},p)$ exists for each $p\in F(T)$.
for some $M,{M}_{1}\ge 0$. $\{{u}_{n}\}$ is bounded. By Lemma 2.12, we find that ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}d({x}_{n},p)$ exists. □
Lemma 3.2 Let C be a nonempty and closed convex subset of a uniformly convex hyperbolic space X with monotone modulus of uniform convexity η and let $T:C\to C$ be a nearly asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive mapping with sequences $\{({a}_{n},{u}_{n})\}$ such that ${\sum}_{n=1}^{\mathrm{\infty}}{a}_{n}<\mathrm{\infty}$ and ${\sum}_{n=1}^{\mathrm{\infty}}{u}_{n}<\mathrm{\infty}$. Let $F(T)\ne \mathrm{\varnothing}$, then for the sequence $\{{x}_{n}\}$ in C defined by (3.1), we have ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}d({x}_{n},{T}^{n}{x}_{n})=0$.
□
Theorem 3.3 Let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of a complete uniformly convex hyperbolic space X with monotone modulus of uniform convexity η and let $T:C\to C$ be a uniformly continuous nearly asymptotically nonexpansive mapping with $F(T)\ne \mathrm{\varnothing}$ and sequence $\{({a}_{n},\eta ({T}^{n}))\}$ such that ${\sum}_{n=1}^{\mathrm{\infty}}(\eta ({T}^{n})-1)<\mathrm{\infty}$ and ${\sum}_{n=1}^{\mathrm{\infty}}{a}_{n}<\mathrm{\infty}$. For arbitrary ${x}_{1}\in C$, let $\{{x}_{n}\}$ be a sequence in C defined by (3.1), where $\{{\alpha}_{n}\}$ and $\{{\beta}_{n}\}$ are sequences in $(0,1)$. Then $\{{x}_{n}\}$ is Δ-convergent to an element of $F(T)$.
Next, we have to show that $\{{x}_{n}\}$ is Δ-convergent to an element of $F(T)$.
which implies that v is a fixed point of T, i.e., $v\in F(T)$.
a contradiction and hence $x=v$. Since $\{{y}_{n}\}$ is an arbitrary subsequence of $\{{x}_{n}\}$, therefore, ${A}_{C}(\{{y}_{n}\})=\{v\}$ for all subsequence of $\{{y}_{n}\}$ of $\{{x}_{n}\}$. This proves that $\{{x}_{n}\}$ Δ-converges to a fixed point of T. □
We now discuss the strong convergence for the S-iteration process defined by (3.1) for Lipschitzian type mappings in a uniformly convex hyperbolic space setting.
Theorem 3.4 Let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of a complete uniformly convex hyperbolic space X with monotone modulus of uniform convexity η and let $T:C\to C$ be a nearly asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive mapping with sequence $\{({a}_{n},{u}_{n})\}$ such that ${\sum}_{n=1}^{\mathrm{\infty}}{a}_{n}<\mathrm{\infty}$ and ${\sum}_{n=1}^{\mathrm{\infty}}{u}_{n}<\mathrm{\infty}$. Assume that $F(T)$ is a closed set. Let $\{{x}_{n}\}$ be a sequence in C defined by (3.1), where $\{{\alpha}_{n}\}$ and $\{{\beta}_{n}\}$ are sequences in $(0,1)$. Then $\{{x}_{n}\}$ converges strongly to a fixed point of T if and only if ${lim\hspace{0.17em}inf}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}d({x}_{n},F(T))=0$.
Proof Necessity is obvious.
Hence $\{{x}_{n}\}$ is a Cauchy sequence in closed subset C of a complete hyperbolic space and so it must converge strongly to a point q in C. Now, ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}d({x}_{n},F(T))=0$ gives $d(q,F(T))=0$. Since $F(T)$ is closed, we have $q\in F(T)$. □
In the next result, the closedness assumption on $F(T)$ is not required.
Theorem 3.5 Let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of a complete uniformly convex hyperbolic space X with monotone modulus of uniform convexity η and $T:C\to C$ an asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive mapping with sequence $\{{u}_{n}\}$ such that ${\sum}_{n=1}^{\mathrm{\infty}}{u}_{n}<\mathrm{\infty}$. Let $\{{x}_{n}\}$ be a sequence in C defined by (3.1), where $\{{\alpha}_{n}\}$ and $\{{\beta}_{n}\}$ are sequences in $(0,1)$. Then $\{{x}_{n}\}$ converges strongly to a fixed point of T if ${lim\hspace{0.17em}inf}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}d({x}_{n},F(T))=0$.
Proof Following an argument similar to those of Theorem 3.4, we see that $\{{x}_{n}\}$ is a Cauchy sequence in C. Let ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{x}_{n}=x$. Since an asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive mapping is quasi-L-Lipschitzian, it follows from Lemma 2.6 that x is a fixed point of T. □
Theorem 3.6 Let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of a complete uniformly convex hyperbolic space X with monotone modulus of uniform convexity η and $T:C\to C$ a uniformly continuous nearly asymptotically nonexpansive mapping with $F(T)\ne \mathrm{\varnothing}$ and sequence $\{{a}_{n},\eta ({T}^{n})\}$ such that ${\sum}_{n=1}^{\mathrm{\infty}}(\eta ({T}^{n})-1)<\mathrm{\infty}$ and ${a}_{n}<\mathrm{\infty}$. For arbitrary ${x}_{1}\in C$, let $\{{x}_{n}\}$ be a sequence in C defined by (3.1), where $\{{\alpha}_{n}\}$ and $\{{\beta}_{n}\}$ are sequences in $(0,1)$. If T is uniformly continuous and ${T}^{m}$ is demicompact for some $m\in N$, it follows that $\{{x}_{n}\}$ converges strongly to a fixed point of T.
Since $d({x}_{n},{T}^{m}{x}_{n})\to 0$, and ${T}^{m}$ is demicompact, there exists a subsequence $\{{x}_{{n}_{j}}\}$ of $\{{x}_{n}\}$ such that ${lim}_{j\to \mathrm{\infty}}{T}^{m}{x}_{{n}_{j}}=x\in C$.
Since ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}d({x}_{n},T{x}_{n})=0$, we get $x\in F(T)$. Since ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}d({x}_{n},x)$ exists by Lemma 3.1, and ${lim}_{j\to \mathrm{\infty}}d({x}_{{n}_{j}},x)=0$, we conclude that ${x}_{n}\to x$. □
Theorem 3.7 Let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of a complete uniformly convex hyperbolic space X with monotone modulus of uniform convexity η and $T:C\to C$ a uniformly continuous nearly asymptotically nonexpansive mapping with $F(T)\ne \mathrm{\varnothing}$ and sequence $\{({a}_{n},\eta ({T}^{n}))\}$ such that ${\sum}_{n=1}^{\mathrm{\infty}}\eta ({T}^{n}-1)<\mathrm{\infty}$ and ${\sum}_{n=1}^{\mathrm{\infty}}{a}_{n}<\mathrm{\infty}$. For arbitrary ${x}_{1}\in C$, let $\{{x}_{n}\}$ be a sequence in C defined by (3.1), where $\{{\alpha}_{n}\}$ and $\{{\beta}_{n}\}$ are sequences in $(0,1)$. Suppose that T satisfies the condition (A). Then $\{{x}_{n}\}$ converges strongly to a fixed point of T.
It follows that ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}d({x}_{n},F(T))=0$. Therefore, the result follows from Theorem 3.4. □
4 Conclusion
- 1.
We prove strong and Δ-convergence of the S-iteration process, which is faster than the iteration processes used by Abbas et al. [19], Dhompongsa and Panyanak [22], and Khan and Abbas [23].
- 2.
Theorem 3.3 extends Agarwal et al. [[18], Theorem 3.8] from a uniformly convex Banach space to a uniformly convex hyperbolic space.
- 3.
Theorem 3.3 extends Dhompongsa and Panyanak [[22], Theorem 3.3] from the class of nonexpansive mappings to the class of mappings which are not necessarily Lipschitzian.
- 4.
Theorem 3.6, extends corresponding results of Beg [36], Chang [37], Khan and Takahashi [4] and Osilike and Aniagbosor [5] for a more general class of non-Lipschitzian mappings in the framework of a uniformly convex hyperbolic space. It also extends the corresponding results of Dhomponsga and Panyanak [22] from the class of nonexpansive mappings to a more general class of non-Lipschitzian mappings in the same space setting.
- 5.
Theorem 3.7 extends Sahu and Beg [[12], Theorem 4.4] from a Banach to a uniformly convex hyperbolic space.
Declarations
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank the editor and all referees for their valuable comments and suggestions for improving the paper.
Authors’ Affiliations
References
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