- Open Access
Conversion of algorithms by releasing projection for minimization problems
© Yao et al.; licensee Springer 2013
- Received: 24 September 2012
- Accepted: 15 April 2013
- Published: 29 April 2013
The projection methods for solving the minimization problems have been extensively considered in many practical problems, for example, the least-square problem. However, the computational difficulty of the projection might seriously affect the efficiency of the method. The purpose of this paper is to construct two algorithms by releasing projection for solving the minimization problem with the feasibility sets such as the set of fixed points of nonexpansive mappings and the solution set of the equilibrium problem.
MSC:47J05, 47J25, 47H09, 65J15.
- equilibrium problem
- fixed point problem
- nonexpansive mapping
where C is a nonempty closed convex subset of a real Hilbert space H, is a bifunction and is an α-inverse-strongly monotone mapping. The reasons why we focus on the above minimization problem (1.1) are mainly in two respects.
Reason 2 The problem (1.2) is very general in the sense that it includes optimization problems, variational inequalities, minimax problems and the Nash equilibrium problem in noncooperative games as special cases. At the same time, fixed point algorithms for non-expansive mappings have received vast investigations due to their extensive applications in a variety of applied areas of the inverse problem, partial differential equations, image recovery and signal processing.
Based on the above facts, it is an interesting topic to construct algorithms for solving the above problems. Now we next briefly review some historic approaches which relate to the problems (1.2) and (1.4).
Subsequently, algorithms constructed for solving the equilibrium problems and fixed point problems have been further developed by some authors. For some works related to the equilibrium problem, fixed point problems and the variational inequality problem, please see Blum and Oettli , Chang et al. , Chantarangsi et al. , Cianciaruso et al. , Colao et al. [12, 13], Fang et al. , Jung , Mainge , Mainge and Moudafi , Moudafi and Théra , Nadezhkina and Takahashi , Noor et al. , Peng et al. , Peng and Yao , Plubtieng and Punpaeng , Takahashi and Takahashi , Yao et al. , Yao and Liou  and the references therein.
Remark 1.1 It is well known that projection methods are used extensively in a variety of methods in optimization theory. Apart from theoretical interest, the main advantage of projection methods, which makes them successful in real-word applications, is computational. The field of projection methods is vast; see, e.g., Bauschke and Borwein , Combettes , Combettes and Pesquet . However, it is clear that if the set C is simple enough, so that the projection onto it is easily executed, then this method is particularly useful; but if C is a general closed and convex set, then a minimal distance problem has to be solved in order to obtain the next iterative. This might seriously affect the efficiency of the method. Hence, it is a very interesting work of solving (1.1) without involving projection.
In particular, if we take , then the net and the sequences converge in norm to a solution of the minimization problem (1.1). It should be pointed out that our suggested algorithms solve the above minimization problem (1.1) without involving the metric projection.
Let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of a real Hilbert space H. Recall that a mapping is called α-inverse-strongly monotone if there exists a positive real number α such that , . It is clear that any α-inverse-strongly monotone mapping is monotone and -Lipschitz continuous. A mapping is said to be nonexpansive if , . Denote the set of fixed points of S by .
for all ;
F is monotone, i.e., for all ;
for each , ;
for each , is convex and lower semicontinuous.
We need the following lemmas for proving our main results.
Lemma 2.1 ()
is single-valued and is firmly nonexpansive, i.e., for any , ;
EP is closed and convex and .
Lemma 2.2 ()
In particular, if , then is nonexpansive.
Lemma 2.3 ()
Let C be a closed convex subset of a real Hilbert space H, and be a nonexpansive mapping. Then the mapping is demiclosed. That is, if is a sequence in C such that weakly and strongly, then .
Lemma 2.4 ()
In this section, we convert algorithms (1.5) and (1.6) by releasing projection and construct two algorithms for finding the minimum norm element of .
This indicates that is a contraction. Using the Banach contraction principle, there exists a unique fixed point of in C. Hence, (3.2) is well defined.
C is a nonempty closed convex subset of a real Hilbert space H;
is a nonexpansive mapping, is an α-inverse strongly monotone mapping and is a ρ-contraction;
is a bifunction which satisfies conditions (H1)-(H4);
In order to prove our first main result, we need the following propositions.
Proposition 3.1 The net generated by the implicit method (3.2) is bounded.
So, is bounded. Hence , , and are also bounded. This completes the proof. □
Proposition 3.2 The net generated by the implicit method (3.2) is relatively norm compact as .
Since is bounded, without loss of generality, we may assume that converges weakly to a point . Also and . Noticing (3.9) we can use Lemma 2.3 to get .
Consequently, the weak convergence of (and ) to actually implies that . This has proved the relative norm-compactness of the net as . This completes the proof. □
Now we show our first main result.
In particular, if we take , then the net converges in norm, as , to a solution of the minimization problem (1.1).
Therefore, . That is, is the unique fixed point in Γ of the contraction . Clearly, this is sufficient to conclude that the entire net converges in norm to as .
Therefore, is a solution of the minimization problem (1.1). This completes the proof. □
Next, we introduce an explicit algorithm for finding a solution of the minimization problem (1.1).
where is a real number sequence in .
Next, we give our second main result.
Theorem 3.5 Assume that the sequence satisfies the conditions: , and . Then the sequence generated by (3.15) converges strongly to which is the unique solution of the variational inequality (3.13). In particular, if , then the sequence converges strongly to a solution of the minimization problem (1.1).
Therefore, is bounded. Hence, , , are also bounded.
Put , where is the net defined by (3.2). We will finally show that .
We can therefore apply Lemma 2.4 to conclude that .
Finally, if we take , by a similar argument as that in Theorem 3.3, we deduce immediately that is a minimum norm element in Γ. This completes the proof. □
The first author was supported in part by NSFC 11071279 and NSFC 71161001-G0105. The second author was supported in part by NSC 101-2628-E-230-001-MY3.
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