# The Methods of Hilbert Spaces and Structure of the Fixed-Point Set of Lipschitzian Mapping

- Jarosław Górnicki
^{1}Email author

**2009**:586487

https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/586487

© Jarosław Górnicki. 2009

**Received: **16 May 2009

**Accepted: **25 August 2009

**Published: **28 September 2009

## Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to prove, by asymptotic center techniques and the methods of Hilbert spaces, the following theorem. Let be a Hilbert space, let be a nonempty bounded closed convex subset of and let be a strongly ergodic matrix. If is a lipschitzian mapping such that , then the set of fixed points is a retract of . This result extends and improves the corresponding results of [7, Corollary 9] and [8, Corollary 1].

## 1. Introduction

Let be a Banach space and let be a nonempty bounded closed convex subset of . We say that a mapping is nonexpansive if

The result of Bruck [1] asserts that if a nonexpansive mapping has a fixed point in every nonempty closed convex subset of which is invariant under and if is convex and weakly compact, then , the set of fixed points, is nonexpansive retract of (i.e., there exists a nonexpansive mapping such that ). A few years ago, the Bruck results were extended by Domínguez Benavides and Lorenzo Ramírez [2] to the case of asymptotically nonexpansive mappings if the space was sufficiently regular.

On the other hand it is known that, the set of fixed points of -lipschitzian mapping can be very irregular for any .

It is not difficult to see that and the Lipschitz constant of tends to if .

For more information on the structure of fixed point sets see [4, 5] and references therein.

In 1973, Goebel and Kirk [3] introduced the class of uniformly
-lipschitzian mappings, recall that a mapping
is *uniformly*
*-lipschitzian*,
, if

and proved the following theorem.

Theorem 1.2.

Then has a fixed point in . Note that in a Hilbert space, .

Recently Sęd
ak and Wiśnicki [6] proved that *under the assumptions of Theorem 1.2 ,*
*is not only connected but even a retract of*
, and next the author proved the following theorem [7, Corollary 9].

Theorem 1.3.

Let be a Hilbert space, a nonempty bounded closed convex subset of and a uniformly - lipschitzian mapping with . Then has a fixed point in and is a retract of .

In this paper we shall continue this work. Precisely, by means of techniques of asymptotic centers and the methods of Hilbert spaces, we establish some result on the structure of fixed point sets for mappings with lipschitzian iterates in a Hilbert space. The class of mappings with lipschitzian iterates is importantly greater than the class of uniformly lipschitzian mappings; see [8, Example 1].

## 2. Asymptotic Center

Denote by the Lipschitz norm of :

Lifshitz [9] significantly extended Goebel and Kirk's result and found an example of a fixed point free uniformly lipschitzian mapping which leaves invariant a bounded closed convex subset of . The validity of Lifshitz's Theorem in a Hilbert space for remains open.

A more general approach was proposed by the present author using the methods of Hilbert spaces, asymptotic techniques, and strongly ergodic matrix. We recall that a matrix
is called *strongly ergodic* if

Then we have the following theorem.

Theorem 2.1 (see [8]).

This result generalizes Lifshitz's Theorem (in case of a Hilbert space) and shows that the theorem admits certain perturbations in the behavior of the norm of successive iterations in infinite sets; see [8, Example 1].

Let
be a Banach space. Recall that *the modulus of convexity*
is the function
defined by

and *uniform convexity* means
for
. A Hilbert space
is uniformly convex. This fact is a direct consequence of parallelogram identity.

Now we prove some version of Sęd ak and Wiśnicki's result [6, Lemma 2.1]. Let be a nonempty bounded closed convex subset of a real Hilbert space , let be a strongly ergodix matrix, and let be a mapping such that for all , and

to denote the asymptotic radius of at and the asymptotic radius of in , respectively. It is well known in a Hilbert space [8] that the asymptotic center of in :

is a singleton.

Let denote a mapping which associates with a given a unique , that is, . The following Lemma is a crucial tool to prove Theorem 4.1.

Lemma 2.2.

Let be a Hilbert space and let be a nonempty bounded closed convex subset of . Then the mapping is continuous.

Proof.

On the contrary, suppose that there exists and such that for all there exists such that and , where .

which is contradiction.

## 3. The Methods of Hilbert Spaces

Let , be as above. We define functionals

where . Let in be an asymptotic center of with respect to and , which minimizes the functional over in (for fix ).

Lemma 3.1.

Proof.

It is consequence of the above definitions.

Lemma 3.2.

Proof.

Lemma 3.3.

Proof.

Lemma 3.4.

Proof.

## 4. Main Result

We are now in position to prove our main result.

Theorem 4.1.

Proof.

Thus, . This implies that see [8] for details. Thus for every and is a retraction of onto .

If is the Cesaro matrix, that is, for

then we have the following corollary.

Corollary 4.2.

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

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