- Research Article
- Open Access

# Some New Weakly Contractive Type Multimaps and Fixed Point Results in Metric Spaces

- Abdul Latif
^{1}Email author and - Afrah A. N. Abdou
^{2}

**2009**:412898

https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/412898

© A. Latif and A. A. N. Abdou. 2009

**Received:**20 September 2009**Accepted:**10 December 2009**Published:**3 February 2010

## Abstract

Some new weakly contractive type multimaps in the setting of metric spaces are introduced, and we prove some results on the existence of fixed points for such maps under certain conditions. Our results extend and improve several known results including the corresponding recent fixed point results of Pathak and Shahzad (2009), Latif and Abdou (2009), Latif and Albar (2008), Cirić (2008), Feng and Liu (2006), and Klim and Wardowski (2007).

## Keywords

- Initial Point
- Fixed Point Theorem
- Lower Semicontinuous
- Cauchy Sequence
- Nondecreasing Function

## 1. Introduction

Let be a metric space. Let denote a collection of nonempty subsets of , a collection of nonempty closed subsets of and a collection of nonempty closed bounded subsets of Let be the Hausdorff metric with respect to , that is,

An element
is called a *fixed point* of a multivalued map (multimap)
if
. We denote

A sequence
in
is called an *orbit* of
at
if
for all
. A map
is called *lower semicontinuous* if for any sequence
such that
we have
.

Using the concept of Hausdorff metric, Nadler [1] established the following multivalued version of the Banach contraction principle.

Theorem 1.1.

This result has been generalized in many directions. For instance, Mizoguchi and Takahashi [2] have obtained the following general form of the Nadler's theorem.

Theorem 1.2.

Many authors have been using the Hausdorff metric to obtain fixed point results for multivalued maps. But, in fact, for most cases the existence part of the results can be proved without using the concept of Hausdorff metric. Recently, Feng and Liu [3] extended Nadler's fixed point theorem without using the concept of the Hausdorff metric. They proved the following result.

Theorem 1.3.

Then provided that a real-valued function on , is lower semicontinuous.

Recently, Klim and Wardowski [4] generalized Theorem 1.3 as follows.

Theorem 1.4.

Let be a complete metric space and let . Assume that the following conditions hold:

(II)for any there is satisfying

Then provided that a real-valued function on , is lower semicontinuous.

The above results have been generalized in many directions; see for instance [5–9] and references therein.

In [10], Kada et al. introduced the concept of -distance on a metric space as follows.

A function is called - on if it satisfies the following for each :

a map is lower semicontinuous; that is, if there is a sequence in with , then ;

for any there exists such that and imply

Note that, in general for , and neither of the implications necessarily hold. Clearly, the metric is a -distance on . Let be a normed space. Then the functions defined by and for all are -distances [10]. Many other examples and properties of the -distance can be found in [10, 11].

The following lemmas concerning -distance are crucial for the proofs of our results.

Lemma 1.5 (see [10]).

Let and be sequences in and let and be sequences in converging to Then, for the -distance on the following conditions hold for every :

(a)if and for any then in particular, if and then ;

(b)if and for any then converges to ;

(c)if for any with then is a Cauchy sequence;

(d)if for any then is a Cauchy sequence.

Lemma 1.6 (see [12]).

Let be a closed subset of and be a -distance on Suppose that there exists such that . Then where

Using the concept of -distance, the authors of this paper most recently extended and generalized Theorem 1.4 and [8, Theorem ] as follows.

Theorem 1.7 (see [13]).

where and is a function from to with for every Suppose that a real-valued function on defined by is lower semicontinuous. Then there exists such that Further, if then .

(iii) is subadditive; that is,

- (b)
If and is continuous at , then due to the following two facts must be continuous at each point of . First, every sub-additive and continuous function at 0 such that is right upper and left lower semicontinuous [14]. Second, each nondecreasing function is left upper and right lower semicontinuous.

- (c)

For a metric space , we denote In the sequel, we consider if and if

Assuming that the function is continuous and satisfies the conditions (i) and (ii) above, Zhang [15] proved some fixed point results for single-valued maps which satisfy some contractive type condition involving such function . Recently, using Pathak and Shahzad [9] generalized Theorem 1.4.

In this paper, we prove some results on the existence of fixed points for contractive type multimaps involving the function where and the function is a -distance on a metric space Our results either generalize or improve several known fixed point results in the setting of metric spaces, (see Remarks 2.3 and 2.6).

## 2. The Results

Theorem 2.1.

Let be a complete metric space with a -distance Let be a multimap. Assume that the following conditions hold:

(III)the map defined by is lower semicontinuous.

Then there exists such that Further if then

Proof.

thus, Since and is closed, it follows from Lemma 1.6 that

If we consider a constant map in Theorem 2.1, then we obtain the following result.

Corollary 2.2.

where Suppose that a real-valued function on defined by is lower semicontinuous. Then there exists such that Further, if then .

- (a)
Theorem 2.1 extends and generalizes Theorem 1.7. Indeed, if we consider for each in Theorem 2.1, then we can get Theorem 1.7 due to Latif and Abdou [13, Theorem ].

- (b)
Theorem 2.1 contains Theorem of Pathak and Shahzad [9] as a special case.

- (c)
Corollary 2.2 extends and generalizes Theorem of Latif and Albar [8].

We have also the following fixed point result which generalizes [13, Theorem ].

Theorem 2.4.

for every with and the function is continuous at . Then

Proof.

Theorem 2.5.

Let be a complete metric space with a -distance Let be a multimap. Assume that the following conditions hold.

(III)the map defined by is lower semicontinuous.

Then there exists such that Further if then

Proof.

thus, Further by the closedness of and since it follows from Lemma 1.6 that

Remark 2.6.

Theorem 2.5 extends and generalizes fixed point results of Klim and Wardowski [4, Theorem ], Cirić [5, Theorem ], and improves fixed point result of Pathak and Shahzad [9, Theorem ].

Following the same method as in the proof of Theorem 2.4, we can obtain the following fixed point result.

Theorem 2.7.

for every with and the function is continuous at then

Now we present an example which satisfies all the conditions of the main results, namely, Theorems 2.1 and 2.5 and thus the set of fixed points of is nonempty.

Example 2.8.

Thus, all the hypotheses of Theorem 2.1 are satisfied and clearly we have Now, if we consider , then all the hypotheses of Theorem 2.5 are also satisfied. Note that in the above example the -distance is not a metric .

## Authors’ Affiliations

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