Fixed points of multi-valued monotone operators and the solvability of a fractional integral inclusion
- Yuqiang Feng^{1, 2}Email author and
- Yuanyuan Wang^{1, 2}
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13663-016-0554-z
© Feng and Wang 2016
Received: 5 February 2016
Accepted: 18 May 2016
Published: 27 May 2016
Abstract
Based on the characterizations of reproducing cones, some fixed point theorems for multi-valued increasing, decreasing, and mixed monotone operators are established. As an application, the solvability of a fractional integral inclusion is discussed.
Keywords
1 Introduction
Single-valued monotone operators have been widely investigated. The results on the existence of fixed points for single-valued monotone operators are bounteous and successful and have found various applications to nonlinear integral equations and differential equations. For details, we can refer to [1–4] and the references therein.
It is well known that mixed monotone operators were introduced by Guo and Lakshmikantham [5] in 1987. Later, Bhaskar and Lakshmikantham [6] introduced the notation of coupled fixed point and proved some coupled fixed point results under certain conditions, in a complete metric space endowed with a partial order. Their study not only has important theoretical meaning but also wide applications in engineering, nuclear physics, biological chemistry technology, economics, etc. (see [5–13] and the references therein).
Very recently, Harjani, Lopez and Sadarangani [14] have established the existence results of coupled fixed point for mixed monotone operators and further obtained their applications to integral equations. Then in [15], Bu, Feng, and Li extended the study to mixed monotone ternary operators.
It is natural to extend these studies to the multi-valued case. In 1984, Nishniannidze [16] introduced the multi-valued monotone operators. Nguyen and Nguyen [17] investigated the fixed points for multi-valued increasing operators and then in [18], a fixed point theorem for a multi-valued increasing operator was established and applied to a discontinuous elliptic equation. Huang and Fang [19] extended the mixed monotone operators to the multi-valued case, the obtained result was applied to a class of integral inclusions. For some recent fixed point theorems for a multi-valued monotone operator, a mixed monotone operator, and their applications in differential equations and differential inclusions, we can refer to [19–25] and the references therein for details. All these papers need the existence of a lower or an upper solution to the operator inclusion.
Motivated by the above work, in this paper, we shall use the properties of reproducing cones to establish some fixed point theorems for multi-valued monotone and mixed monotone operators. Compared with the previous work, we remove the requirement of the existence of a lower or upper solution. When the operator is single-valued and mixed monotone, we get an existence and uniqueness result.
This paper is organized as follows: in Section 2, some basic knowledge and the properties of a reproducing cone are presented; then in Section 3, the existence of a fixed point for multi-valued monotone operators is established; in Section 4, coupled fixed point theorems are presented for single-valued and multi-valued mixed monotone operators. In the final section, as applications of our results, the solvability of a fractional integral inclusion is discussed.
2 Preliminaries
In this section, we recall some standard definitions and notations needed in the following section. For convenience of the reader, we suggest that one refers to [3, 26] for details.
At the beginning of this section, let us recall some concepts of the theory of cones in Banach spaces. These concepts play an important role in the remainder of this paper.
Let X be a Banach space, a closed convex set \(P\subset X\) is called a cone, if \(x\in P\) and \(x\neq0\) implies \(\alpha x\in P\) for \(\alpha\geq0\) and \(\alpha x\notin P\) for \(\alpha< 0\). A cone defines a partial order in the Banach space X: we write \(x\leq y\) or \(y\geq x\) if \(y-x\in P\). The relation enjoys the following properties: inequalities may be multiplied by a nonnegative numbers; inequalities of the same kind may be added by terms; one may pass to the limit in inequalities; \(x\leq y\) and \(y\leq x\) implies \(x=y\). Denote \(-P=\{-x\mid x\in P\}\), then −P is a cone too.
It is well known that if X be a partially ordered Banach space endowed with partial order ≤, then the subset \(P=\{x\in X\mid0\leq x\}\) is a cone.
Definition 2.1
[26]
A cone P is called normal, if there is a \(K>0\), such that \(0\leq x\leq y\) implies \(\Vert x\Vert\leq K\Vert y\Vert\) and K does not depend on x and y. Any such \(K=K(P)\) is called a normal constant of P. A cone P is called reproducing, if each \(x\in X\) admits a presentation \(x=u-v\) (\(u,v\in P\)). The elements u, v are, of course, not unique.
For the details of cone theory, see [26] and references therein.
Lemma 2.2
[4]
- (1)
P is reproducing;
- (2)
every pair \(x,y\in X \) has a lower bound;
- (3)
every pair \(x,y\in X \) has an upper bound;
- (4)
\(\forall x\in X\), there exists \(u\geq0\) such that \(x\leq u\);
- (5)
\(\forall x\in X\), there exists \(u\leq0\) such that \(x\geq u\).
Definition 2.3
[20]
- (1)
\(A\prec_{1}B\) if for every \(a\in A\), there exists \(b\in B\) such that \(a\leq b\);
- (2)
\(A\prec_{2}B\) if for every \(b\in B\), there exists \(a\in A\) such that \(a\leq b\);
- (3)
\(A\prec B\) if \(A\prec_{1}B\) and \(A\prec_{2}B\).
Definition 2.4
- (1)
A multi-valued operator \(T: X\rightarrow2^{X}\setminus\{\phi\}\) is called increasing, if for \(\forall x,y\in X\), \(x\leq y\) implies \(T(x)\prec T(y)\).
- (2)
A multi-valued operator \(T: X\rightarrow2^{X}\setminus\{\phi\}\) is called decreasing, if for \(\forall x,y\in X\), \(x\leq y\) implies \(T(y)\prec T(x)\).
- (3)
A multi-valued operator \(T: X\times X\rightarrow2^{X}\setminus \{\phi\}\) is called mixed monotone, if for \(\forall x_{1},x_{2},y_{1},y_{2}\in X\), \(x_{1}\leq x_{2}\), \(y_{2}\leq y_{1}\) implies \(T(x_{1},y_{1})\prec T(x_{2},y_{2})\).
Definition 2.5
- (1)
Let \(T:X\rightarrow2^{X}\setminus\{\phi\}\) be a multi-valued operator, \(\overline{x}\in X\) is called a fixed point of T, if \(\overline{x}\in T(\overline{x})\).
- (2)
Assume \(T : X\times X\rightarrow2^{X}\setminus\{\phi\}\) is a multi-valued operator, \((\overline{x},\overline{y})\in X\times X\) is called a coupled fixed point of T, if \(\overline{x}\in T(\overline {x},\overline{y})\) and \(\overline{y}\in T(\overline{y},\overline{x})\).
3 Fixed points for multi-valued monotone operators
In this section, some fixed point theorems for multi-valued increasing and decreasing operators are proved in partial ordered Banach space.
Throughout this paper, we assume that X is a Banach space, P is a normal and reproducing cone in X and the partial order ‘≤’ is induced by the cone P.
Theorem 3.1
- (1)
For any \(x\in X\), \(T(x)\) is a nonempty and closed subset of X.
- (2)There exists a linear operator \(L:X\rightarrow X\) with spectral radius \(r(L)<1\), \(L(P)\subset P\) such that, for any \(x,y\in X\), \(x\leq y\) implies:
- (i)for any \(u\in T(x)\), there exists \(v\in T(y)\) satisfying$$0\leq v-u\leq L(y-x), $$
- (ii)for any \(v\in T(y)\), there exists \(u\in T(x)\) satisfying$$0\leq v-u\leq L(y-x). $$
- (i)
Proof
- Step 1.
There exists \(x_{0}\in X\), such that \(\{x_{0}\}\prec_{1} T(x_{0})\).
In fact,- (1)
if \(\{0\}\prec_{1} T(0)\), then \(x_{0}=0\);
- (2)
if \(\{0\}\prec_{1} T(0)\) does not hold.
Let \(y_{0}\in T(0)\). Since P is reproducing, by Lemma 2.2, there is \(v\in(-P)\), such that \(v\leq y_{0}\).
Due to the assumption \(r(L)<1\), \(L(P)\subset P\), we know that the equationhas a unique solution \(z_{0}\in P\) by Banach’s contraction theorem.$$(I-L)x=-v $$Let \(x_{0}=-z_{0}\), by assumption (2)(ii), for \(y_{0}\in T(0)\), there exists \(u_{0}\in T(x_{0})\) such thathence,$$0\leq y_{0}-u_{0}\leq L(0-x_{0}), $$$$u_{0}\geq y_{0}-L(z_{0}). $$Noting that \(v\leq y_{0}\) and \((I-L)(z_{0})=-v\), we havewhich implies \(\{x_{0}\}\prec_{1} T(x_{0})\).$$u_{0}\geq y_{0}-L(z_{0})\geq v-L(z_{0})=-z_{0}=x_{0}, $$ - (1)
- Step 2.
There exists an increasing and fundamental sequence \(\{ x_{n}\} \subset X\).
In fact, let \(x_{1}=u_{0}\), due to assumption (2)(i), there exists \(x_{2}\in T(x_{1})\) such thatRepeating the arguments above for the pair \(x_{1}\), \(x_{2}\) in place of \(x_{0}\), \(x_{1}\) and so on, we can find an increasing sequence \(\{x_{n}\}\) satisfying$$0\leq x_{2}-x_{1}\leq L(x_{1}-x_{0}). $$$$x_{n}\in T(x_{n-1}),\quad 0\leq x_{n+1}-x_{n} \leq L^{n}(x_{1}-x_{0}). $$Since \(\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}(\|L^{n}\|)^{\frac{1}{n}}=r(L)\) and \(r(L)<1\), we have \(\|L^{n}\|\leq q^{n}\) for some \(q\in(0,1)\) and for all sufficiently large n.
At this moment, we getwhere K is the normal constant of cone P.$$\|x_{n}-x_{n-1}\|\leq K\bigl\| L^{n}\bigr\| \cdot \|x_{1}-x_{0}\|\leq Kq^{n}\|x_{1}-x_{0} \|, $$This implies \(\{x_{n}\}\) is fundamental. Since X is complete, there exists a unique \(x^{*}\in X\) such that \(x_{n}\rightarrow x^{*}\).
- Step 3.
\(x^{*}\in T(x^{*})\).
Since \(x_{n-1}\leq x^{*}\), \(x_{n}\in T(x_{n-1})\), by assumption 2(i), there exists \(y_{n}\in T(x^{*})\), such thatDue to the fact that P is normal, we have$$0\leq y_{n}-x_{n}\leq L\bigl(x^{*}-x_{n-1}\bigr). $$which implies$$\|y_{n}-x_{n}\|\leq K\|L\|\cdot\bigl\| x^{*}-x_{n-1}\bigr\| , $$$$\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}y_{n}=\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}(y_{n}-x_{n})+ \lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}\bigl(x_{n}-x^{*}\bigr)+x^{*}=x^{*}. $$Noting that \(T(x^{*})\) is closed, we know \(x^{*}\in T(x^{*})\).
This ends the proof. □
Remark 3.2
- 1.
In Theorem 3.1, the assumptions (2)(i) and (2)(ii) imply that \(T(x)\prec T(y)\) for \(x\leq y\), i.e. T is a multi-valued increasing operator.
- 2.
It should be noticed that Theorem 3.1 cannot ensure the uniqueness of a fixed point. For example, let \(X=R\), \(\|x\|=|x|\), \(P=\{ x\in R\mid x\geq0\}\), then X is a Banach space and P a normal and reproducing cone.
Define \(T:X\rightarrow 2^{X}\setminus\{\phi\}\), \(L:X\rightarrow X\) as follows:All conditions of Theorem 3.1 are satisfied. It is easy to verify that the fixed point set of T is the interval \([-1,1]\).$$\begin{aligned}& T(x)=\biggl\{ u\in X\Bigm| \frac{1}{2}x-\frac{1}{2}\leq u\leq \frac{1}{2}x+\frac {1}{2}\biggr\} ,\quad x\in X, \\& L(x)=\frac{1}{2}x. \end{aligned}$$ - 3.In the special case when T is single-valued, assumption (1) of Theorem 3.1 is naturally satisfied. Assumption (2) is simplified thus: there exists a linear operator \(L:X\rightarrow X\) with spectral radius \(r(L)<1\), \(L(P)\subset P\) such thatIn this case, for the fixed point of T we have existence and uniqueness; see [4].$$T(y)-T(x)\leq L(y-x),\quad \forall x\leq y. $$
Remark 3.3
- 1.Define \(T:X\rightarrow 2^{X}\setminus\{\phi\}\), \(L:X\rightarrow X\) as follows:Then assumption (2)(i), (2)(ii) of Theorem 3.1 are satisfied. But \(T(x)\) is not closed. It is obvious that T has no fixed point.$$\begin{aligned}& T(x)= \textstyle\begin{cases} (-1,1),& x\leq-1\mbox{ or }x\geq1, \\ (-1,x)\cup(x,1),& -1< x< 1, \end{cases}\displaystyle \\& L(x)=\frac{1}{2}x. \end{aligned}$$
- 2.Define \(T:X\rightarrow 2^{X}\setminus\{\phi\}\) as$$T(x)=[x+1,\infty). $$
Then T satisfies assumptions (1) and (2)(ii), where \(L(x)=\lambda x\) for any \(\lambda\in(0,1)\). But T cannot satisfy assumption (2)(i). It is obvious that T has no fixed point.
- 3.Define \(T:X\rightarrow 2^{X}\setminus\{\phi\}\) as$$T(x)=(-\infty, x-1]. $$
Then T satisfies assumptions (1) and (2)(i), where \(L(x)=\lambda x\) for any \(\lambda\in(0,1)\). But T cannot satisfy assumption (2)(ii). It is obvious that T has no fixed point.
In the following, we give a fixed point theorem for multi-valued decreasing operator.
Theorem 3.4
- (1)
For any \(x\in X\), \(T(x)\) is a nonempty and closed subset of X.
- (2)There exists a positive constant \(c\in(0,1)\) such that, for any \(x,y\in X\), \(x\leq y\) implies:
- (i)for any \(u\in T(x)\), there exists \(v\in T(y)\) satisfying$$-c(y-x)\leq v-u\leq0, $$
- (ii)for any \(v\in T(y)\), there exists \(u\in T(x)\) satisfying$$-c(y-x)\leq v-u\leq0. $$
- (i)
Proof
- (1)
For any \(x\in X\), \(S(x)\) is a nonempty and closed subset of X.
- (2)For any \(x,y\in X\), \(x\leq y\) implies:
- (i)for any \(u\in S(x)\), there exists \(v\in S(y)\) satisfying$$0\leq v-u\leq\frac{c}{1+c}(y-x), $$
- (ii)for any \(v\in S(y)\), there exists \(u\in S(x)\) satisfying$$0\leq v-u\leq\frac{c}{1+c}(y-x). $$
- (i)
4 Coupled fixed points for mixed monotone operators
In this section, we shall establish the existence and uniqueness of coupled fixed point for single-valued mixed monotone operators, and then we extend the study to the multi-valued case.
To verify the main results, we need the following lemma.
Lemma 4.1
- (1)
\(X \times X\) is a Banach space with the norm \(\|(x,y)\|=\max \{\|x\|,\|y\|\}\).
- (2)
\(P\times(-P)\) is a normal and reproducing cone in \(X \times X\).
Proof
- (i)If \((0,0)\lesssim(x_{1},y_{1})\lesssim (x_{2},y_{2})\), then \(0\leq x_{1}\leq x_{2}\), \(0\geq y_{1}\geq y_{2}\), or equivalently, \(0\leq-y_{1}\leq-y_{2}\). Since P is normal,where K is the normal constant of P.$$\|x_{1}\|\leq K\|x_{2}\|,\qquad \|y_{1}\|\leq K \|y_{2}\|, $$Hence, we knowwhich implies \(P\times(-P)\) is normal with normal constant K.$$\bigl\| (x_{1},y_{1})\bigr\| =\max\bigl\{ \|x_{1}\|, \|y_{1}\|\bigr\} \leq K\max\bigl\{ \|x_{2}\|,\|y_{2}\|\bigr\} =K\bigl\| (x_{2},y_{2})\bigr\| , $$
- (ii)For arbitrary \((x,y)\in X \times X\), since P is reproducing, there exist \(u_{1},v_{1},u_{2},v_{2}\in P\), such that \(x=u_{1}-v_{1}\), \(y=u_{2}-v_{2}\), or equivalently, \(y=(-v_{2})-(-v_{1})\). Thenwhich implies \(P\times(-P)\) is a reproducing cone in \(X \times X\).$$(x,y)=(u_{1}, -v_{2})-(u_{2}, -v_{1})\in P\times(-P)-P\times(-P), $$
Theorem 4.2
Proof
Then T has a coupled fixed point if and only if F has a fixed point.
- (1)
Φ is a linear operator and \(\Phi(P\times(-P))\subset P\times(-P)\).
In fact, since L, S is linear, Φ is a linear operator on \(X\times X\).
If \((x,y)\in P\times(-P)\), i.e. \(x\geq0\), \(y\leq0\), due to the positivity of L, S, we have \(L(x)\geq0\), \(L(y)\leq0\), \(S(x)\geq0\), \(S(y)\leq0\), theni.e.$$L(x)-S(y)\geq0,\qquad -S(x)+L(y)\leq0 $$$$\Phi(x,y)\in P\times(-P). $$ - (2)
Φ is bounded and its operator norm \(\|\Phi\|\leq\|L\| +\|S\|<1\).
In fact,$$\begin{aligned} \|\Phi\|&= \sup_{(x,y)\in X\times X, \|(x,y)\|=1}\bigl\| \Phi(x,y )\bigr\| \\ &= \sup_{(x,y)\in X\times X, \|(x,y)\|=1}\max\bigl\{ \bigl\| L(x)-S(y)\bigr\| ,\bigl\| L(y)-S(x)\bigr\| \bigr\} \\ &\leq\sup_{(x,y)\in X\times X, \|(x,y)\|=1}\max\bigl\{ \bigl\| L(x)\bigr\| +\bigl\| S(y)\bigr\| ,\bigl\| L(y)\bigr\| +\bigl\| S(x)\bigr\| \bigr\} \\ &\leq \sup_{(x,y)\in X\times X, \max \{\|x\|,\|y\| \}=1}\max\bigl\{ \|L\| \|x\|+\|S\|\|y\|,\|L\|\|y\|+\|S\| \|x\| \bigr\} \\ &\leq \|L\|+\|S\|. \end{aligned}$$
This ends the proof. □
Remark 4.3
If, in addition, the positive linear operators L, S are commutative, i.e. \(LS=SL\), then the requirement \(\|L\|+\|S\|<1\) can be relaxed to \(r(L)+r(S)<1\).
Then, by [4] Theorem 3.2, F has a unique fixed point \((\overline {x},\overline{y})\in X\times X\).
Now, we extend the study to the multi-valued case.
In the same manner as the proof of Theorem 3.1 and Theorem 4.2, we can verify the following coupled fixed point theorem for multi-valued mixed monotone operators.
Theorem 4.4
- (1)
For any \((x,y)\in X\times X\), \(T(x,y)\) is a nonempty and closed subset of X.
- (2)There exist two linear operators \(L,S:X\rightarrow X\), \(\|L\| +\|S\|<1\), \(L(P)\subset P\), \(S(P)\subset P\) such that, for any \(x_{1}, x_{2}, y_{1}, y_{2}\in X\), \(x_{1}\leq x_{2}\), \(y_{2}\leq y_{1}\) imply:
- (i)for any \(u\in T(x_{1},y_{1})\), there exists \(v\in T(x_{2},y_{2})\)$$0\leq v-u \leq L(x_{2}-x_{1})+S(y_{1}-y_{2}), $$
- (ii)for any \(v\in T(x_{2},y_{2})\), there exists \(u\in T(x_{1},y_{1})\)$$0\leq v-u \leq L(x_{2}-x_{1})+S(y_{1}-y_{2}). $$
- (i)
5 Application to a fractional integral inclusion
Let \(X=C[0,1]\). For \(x\in X\), let \(\|x\|=\max_{t\in[0,1]}|x(t)|\), \(P=\{ x\in X\mid x(t)\geq0, t\in[0,1]\}\), then \((X,\Vert\cdot\Vert)\) is a Banach space and P is a normal and reproducing cone in X.
Theorem 5.1
- (1)\(f:[0,1]\times R\rightarrow2^{R}\setminus\{\phi\}\) satisfies the following hypotheses:
- (i)
\(f(t,x)\) in \(P_{\mathrm{kc}}(R)\) for \((t,x)\in[0,1]\times R\);
- (ii)
for each \(u\in X\), \(t\rightarrow f(t,u(t))\) is measurable;
- (iii)
for each \(t\in[0,1]\) and \(u\in C[0,1]\), \(\sup_{x\in f(\cdot,u(\cdot))}\|x\|\in L^{1}\).
- (i)
- (2)There exists a constant \(M>0\) such that for any \(x,y\in X\), \(x\leq y\) implies:
- (i)for any \(u\in\int_{0}^{t}{(t-s)}^{\alpha-1}f(s,x(s))\,ds\cap C[0,1]\), there exists \(v\in\int_{0}^{t}{(t-s)}^{\alpha-1}f(s,y(s))\,ds\cap C[0,1]\) satisfying$$0\leq v(t)-u(t)\leq \int_{0}^{t}{(t-s)}^{\alpha-1}M\bigl(y(s)-x(s) \bigr)\,ds, $$
- (ii)for any \(v\in\int_{0}^{t}{(t-s)}^{\alpha-1}f(s,y(s))\,ds\cap C[0,1]\), there exists \(u\in\int_{0}^{t}{(t-s)}^{\alpha-1}f(s,x(s))\,ds\cap C[0,1]\) satisfying$$0\leq v(t)-u(t)\leq \int_{0}^{t}{(t-s)}^{\alpha-1}M\bigl(y(s)-x(s) \bigr)\,ds. $$
- (i)
To prove the solvability of fractional integral inclusion, we need the following lemma.
Lemma 5.2
\(I^{\alpha}\) is a linear, positive operator from X to X. Moreover, the spectral radius \(r(I^{\alpha})=0\).
Proof
- Step 1.
\(I^{\alpha}\) maps X into X.
In fact, for arbitrary \(u\in X\), assume \(t, t+h\in[0,1]\).
When \(h>0\)$$\begin{aligned} \bigl\vert I^{\alpha}u(t+h)-I^{\alpha}u(t)\bigr\vert ={}& \biggl\vert \frac{1}{\Gamma(\alpha )} \int_{0}^{t+h}(t+h-\tau)^{\alpha-1}u(\tau)\,d\tau \\ &{}- \frac{1}{\Gamma(\alpha)} \int_{0}^{t}(t-\tau)^{\alpha-1}u(\tau)\,d\tau \biggr\vert \\ \leq{}& \frac{\Vert u \Vert}{\Gamma(\alpha)}\biggl\vert \int _{0}^{t}\bigl[(t+h-\tau)^{\alpha-1}-(t- \tau)^{\alpha-1}\bigr]\,d\tau\biggr\vert \\ &{}+ \frac{\Vert u \Vert}{\Gamma(\alpha)}\biggl\vert \int _{0}^{t+h}(t+h-\tau)^{\alpha-1}\,d\tau\biggr\vert \\ ={}& \frac{\Vert u \Vert}{\Gamma(\alpha)}\biggl(\vert K_{1} \vert+\frac {h^{\alpha}}{\alpha} \biggr). \end{aligned}$$For \(K_{1}\), we have the following estimation:$$|K_{1}|=\biggl| \int_{0}^{t}\bigl[(t+h-\tau)^{\alpha-1}-(t- \tau)^{\alpha-1}\bigr]\,d\tau \biggr|=h^{\alpha} \int_{0}^{\frac{t}{h}}\bigl[s^{\alpha-1}-(s+1)^{\alpha-1} \bigr]\,ds. $$(1) If \(0\leq t\leq h\),$$|K_{1}|< h^{\alpha} \int_{0}^{1}\bigl[s^{\alpha-1}-(s+1)^{\alpha-1} \bigr]\,ds< h^{\alpha }\frac{h^{\alpha}}{\alpha}. $$(2) If \(t>h\), then$$\begin{aligned} \vert K_{1} \vert&= \biggl\vert \frac{1}{\Gamma(\alpha)} \int_{0}^{t+h}(t+h-\tau )^{\alpha-1}u(\tau)\,d \tau- \frac{1}{\Gamma(\alpha)} \int_{0}^{t}(t-\tau )^{\alpha-1}u(\tau)\,d\tau \biggr\vert \\ &= h^{\alpha} \int_{0}^{1}\bigl[s^{\alpha-1}-(s+1)^{\alpha-1} \bigr]\,ds+h^{\alpha } \int_{1}^{\frac{t}{h}}\bigl[s^{\alpha-1}-(s+1)^{\alpha-1} \bigr]\,ds \\ &< \frac{h^{\alpha}}{\alpha}+(1-\alpha)h^{\alpha} \int_{1}^{\frac {t}{h}}s^{\alpha-2}\,ds \\ &< \frac{h^{\alpha}}{\alpha}+(1-\alpha)h^{\alpha} \int_{1}^{\infty }s^{\alpha-2}\,ds \\ &=\biggl(1+\frac{1}{\alpha}\biggr)h^{\alpha}. \end{aligned}$$By (1), (2), we have$$\lim_{h\rightarrow0}\bigl|I^{\alpha}u(t+h)-I^{\alpha}u(t)\bigr|=0. $$In the same manner, we can prove \(\lim_{h\rightarrow0}|I^{\alpha }u(t+h)-I^{\alpha}u(t)|=0\) for \(h<0\).
Hence, \(I^{\alpha}u\in X\). The linearity and positivity of \(I^{\alpha}\) are obvious.
- Step 2.
\(r(I^{\alpha})=0\).
By the semi-group property of the Riemann-Liouville fractional integral operator, we havehence$$\bigl(I^{\alpha}\bigr)^{n}u(t)=I^{n\alpha}u(t)= \frac{1}{\Gamma(n\alpha)} \int _{0}^{t}(t-\tau)^{n\alpha-1}u(\tau)\,d\tau, $$$$\begin{aligned} \bigl\| \bigl(I^{\alpha}\bigr)^{n}\bigr\| &= \sup_{\|u\|=1} \max_{0\leq t\leq1}\biggl\vert \frac {1}{\Gamma(n\alpha)} \int_{0}^{t}(t-\tau)^{n\alpha-1}u(\tau)\,d\tau \biggr\vert \\ &\leq \max_{0\leq t\leq1}\biggl\vert \frac{1}{\Gamma(n\alpha)} \int _{0}^{t}(t-\tau)^{n\alpha-1}\,d\tau\biggr\vert \\ &= \max_{0\leq t\leq1}\frac{1}{\Gamma(n\alpha)}\frac{1}{n\alpha }t^{n\alpha} \\ &\leq \frac{1}{\Gamma(n\alpha+1)}. \end{aligned}$$Due to Stiring’s formula,By Gelfand’s formula,$$\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}\sqrt[n]{\Gamma(n\alpha+1)}=\lim _{n\rightarrow \infty}\sqrt[n]{\biggl(\frac{n\alpha}{e}\biggr)^{n\alpha} \sqrt{2n\pi\alpha }\bigl(1+o(1)\bigr)}=\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}\biggl( \frac{n\alpha}{e}\biggr)^{\alpha}=\infty. $$Then \(r(I^{\alpha})=0\).$$r\bigl(I^{\alpha}\bigr)=\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty} {\bigl\| \bigl(I^{\alpha}\bigr)^{n}\bigr\| }^{\frac {1}{n}}\leq\lim _{n\rightarrow\infty} \biggl\vert \frac{1}{\sqrt[n]{\Gamma (n\alpha+1)}}\biggr\vert =0. $$
Proof of Theorem 5.1
- (i)for any \(u\in T(x)\), there exists \(v\in T(y)\) satisfying$$0\leq v-u\leq L(y-x), $$
- (ii)for any \(v\in T(y)\), there exists \(u\in T(x)\) satisfying$$0\leq v-u\leq L(y-x), $$
This ends the proof. □
Declarations
Acknowledgements
We are grateful to the anonymous referees for their helpful suggestions. This research is supported in part by the Doctoral Fund of Education Ministry of China (20134219120003) and the Key Program of Natural Science Foundation of China (71231007).
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Authors’ Affiliations
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