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RETRACTED ARTICLE: Fixed point theorems for solutions of the stationary Schrödinger equation on cones

  • The Retraction Note to this article has been published in Fixed Point Theory and Applications 2020 2020:1

Abstract

The main aim of this paper is to study and establish some new coincidence point and common fixed point theorems for solutions of the stationary Schrödinger equation on cones. An interesting application is to investigate the existence and uniqueness for solutions of the Dirichlet problem with respect to the Schrödinger operator on cones and the growth property of them.

Introduction and main results

Let R and \(\mathbf{R}_{+}\) be the set of all real numbers and the set of all positive real numbers, respectively. We denote by \(\mathbf{R}^{n}\) (\(n\geq2\)) the n-dimensional Euclidean space. A point in \(\mathbf{R}^{n}\) is denoted by \(P=(X,x_{n})\), \(X=(x_{1},x_{2},\ldots,x_{n-1})\). The Euclidean distance of two points P and Q in \(\mathbf{R}^{n}\) is denoted by \(|P-Q|\). Also \(|P-O|\) with the origin O of \(\mathbf{R}^{n}\) is simply denoted by \(|P|\). The boundary, the closure, and the complement of a set S in \(\mathbf{R}^{n}\) are denoted by S, \(\overline{\mathbf{S}}\), and \(\mathbf{S}^{c}\), respectively.

For \(P\in\mathbf{R}^{n}\) and \(r>0\), let \(B(P,r)\) denote the open ball with center at P and radius r in \(\mathbf{R}^{n}\).

We introduce a system of spherical coordinates \((r,\Theta)\), \(\Theta=(\theta_{1},\theta_{2},\ldots,\theta_{n-1})\), in \(\mathbf{R}^{n}\) which are related to cartesian coordinates \((x_{1},x_{2},\ldots,x_{n-1},x_{n})\) by \(x_{n}=r\cos\theta_{1}\).

The unit sphere and the upper half unit sphere in \(\mathbf{R}^{n}\) are denoted by \(\mathbf{S}^{n-1}\) and \(\mathbf{S}_{+}^{n-1}\), respectively. For simplicity, a point \((1,\Theta)\) on \(\mathbf{S}^{n-1}\) and the set \(\{\Theta; (1,\Theta)\in\Omega\}\) for a set Ω, \(\Omega\subset\mathbf{S}^{n-1}\), are often identified with Θ and Ω, respectively. By \(C_{n}(\Omega)\), we denote the set \(\mathbf{R}_{+}\times\Omega\) in \(\mathbf{R}^{n}\) with the domain Ω on \(\mathbf{S}^{n-1}\) (\(n\geq2\)). We call it a cone. Then \(T_{n}\) is a special cone obtained by putting \(\Omega=\mathbf{S}_{+}^{n-1}\). We denote the sets \(I\times\Omega\) and \(I\times\partial{\Omega}\) with an interval on R by \(C_{n}(\Omega;I)\) and \(S_{n}(\Omega;I)\). By \(S_{n}(\Omega; r)\) we denote \(C_{n}(\Omega)\cap S_{r}\). By \(S_{n}(\Omega)\) we denote \(S_{n}(\Omega; (0,+\infty))\), which is \(\partial{C_{n}(\Omega)}-\{O\}\).

We shall say that a set \(E\subset C_{n}(\Omega)\) has a covering \(\{r_{j}, R_{j}\}\) if there exists a sequence of balls \(\{B_{j}\}\) with centers in \(C_{n}(\Omega)\) such that \(E\subset\bigcup_{j=0}^{\infty} B_{j}\), where \(r_{j}\) is the radius of \(B_{j}\) and \(R_{j}\) is the distance from the origin to the center of \(B_{j}\).

Let \(C_{n}(\Omega)\) be an arbitrary domain in \(\mathbf{R}^{n}\) and Aa denote the class of nonnegative radial potentials \(a(P)\), i.e. \(0\leq a(P)=a(r)\), \(P=(r,\Theta)\in C_{n}(\Omega)\), such that \(a\in L_{\mathrm{loc}}^{b}(C_{n}(\Omega))\) with some \(b> {n}/{2}\) if \(n\geq4\) and with \(b=2\) if \(n=2\) or \(n=3\).

This article is devoted to the stationary Schrödinger equation

$$\operatorname{Sch}_{a}u(P)=-\Delta u(P)+a(P)u(P)=0 \quad\mbox{for } P \in C_{n}(\Omega), $$

where Δ is the Laplace operator and aAa. The class of these solution is denoted by \(H(a,\Omega)\). Note that they are the (classical) harmonic functions on cones in the case \(a=0\). Under these assumptions the operator \(\operatorname{Sch}_{a}\) can be extended in the usual way from the space \(C_{0}^{\infty}(C_{n}(\Omega))\) to an essentially self-adjoint operator on \(L^{2}(C_{n}(\Omega))\) (see [1], Chapter 13). We will denote it \(\operatorname{Sch}_{a}\) as well. The latter has a Green-Sch function \(G_{\Omega}^{a}(P,Q)\). Here \(G_{\Omega}^{a}(P,Q)\) is positive on \(C_{n}(\Omega)\) and its inner normal derivative \(\partial G_{\Omega}^{a}(P,Q)/{\partial n_{Q}}\geq0\), where \({\partial}/{\partial n_{Q}}\) denotes the differentiation at Q along the inward normal into \(C_{n}(\Omega)\). We denote this derivative by \(PI_{\Omega}^{a}(P,Q)\), which is called the Poisson-Sch kernel with respect to \(C_{n}(\Omega)\).

For positive functions \(h_{1}\) and \(h_{2}\), we say that \(h_{1}\lesssim h_{2}\) if \(h_{1}\leq Mh_{2}\) for some constant \(M>0\). If \(h_{1}\lesssim h_{2}\) and \(h_{2}\lesssim h_{1}\), we say that \(h_{1}\approx h_{2}\).

Let Ω be a domain on \(\mathbf{S}^{n-1}\) with smooth boundary. Consider the Dirichlet problem

$$\begin{aligned}& (\Lambda_{n}+\lambda)\varphi=0 \quad\mbox{on } \Omega, \\& \varphi=0 \quad\mbox{on } \partial{\Omega}, \end{aligned}$$

where \(\Lambda_{n}\) is the spherical part of the Laplace opera \(\Delta_{n}\)

$$\Delta_{n}=\frac{n-1}{r}\frac{\partial}{\partial r}+\frac{\partial^{2}}{\partial r^{2}}+ \frac{\Lambda_{n}}{r^{2}}. $$

We denote the least positive eigenvalue of this boundary value problem by λ and the normalized positive eigenfunction corresponding to λ by \(\varphi(\Theta)\), \(\int_{\Omega}\varphi^{2}(\Theta)\,dS_{1}=1\). In order to ensure the existence of λ and a smooth \(\varphi(\Theta)\). We put a rather strong assumption on Ω: if \(n\geq3\), then Ω is a \(C^{2,\alpha}\)-domain (\(0<\alpha<1\)) on \(\mathbf{S}^{n-1}\) surrounded by a finite number of mutually disjoint closed hypersurfaces (e.g. see [2], pp.88-89, for the definition of a \(C^{2,\alpha}\)-domain).

For any \((1,\Theta)\in\Omega\), we have (see [3], pp.7-8)

$$\varphi(\Theta)\approx \operatorname{dist} \bigl((1,\Theta), \partial{C_{n}( \Omega)} \bigr), $$

which yields

$$ \delta(P)\approx r\varphi(\Theta), $$
(1.1)

where \(P=(r,\Theta)\in C_{n}(\Omega)\) and \(\delta(P)=\operatorname{dist}(P,\partial{C_{n}(\Omega)})\).

We consider solutions of an ordinary differential equation

$$ -Q''(r)-\frac{n-1}{r}Q'(r)+ \biggl( \frac{\lambda}{r^{2}}+a(r) \biggr)Q(r)=0,\quad 0< r<\infty. $$
(1.2)

It is well known (see, for example, [4]) that if the potential aAa, then (1.2) has a fundamental system of positive solutions \(\{V,W\}\) such that V is nondecreasing with (see [57])

$$0\leq V(0+)\leq V(r) \quad\mbox{as }r\rightarrow+\infty, $$

and W is monotonically decreasing with

$$+\infty=W(0+)>W(r)\searrow0 \quad\mbox{as } r\rightarrow+\infty. $$

We will also consider the class Ba, consisting of the potentials aAa such that there the finite limit \(\lim_{r\rightarrow\infty}r^{2} a(r)=k\in[0,\infty)\) exists, and moreover, \(r^{-1}|r^{2} a(r)-k|\in L(1,\infty)\). If aBa, then the (sub-) superfunctions are continuous (see [8]).

In the rest of paper, we assume that aBa and we shall suppress denotation of this assumption for simplicity.

Denote

$$\iota_{k}^{\pm}=\frac{2-n\pm\sqrt{(n-2)^{2}+4(k+\lambda)}}{2}, $$

then the solutions to (1.2) have the asymptotic (see [9])

$$ V(r)\approx r^{\iota_{k}^{+}}, \qquad W(r)\approx r^{\iota _{k}^{-}}, \quad\mbox{as } r\rightarrow\infty. $$
(1.3)

We denote the Green-Sch potential with a positive measure v on \(C_{n}(\Omega)\) by

$$G_{\Omega}^{a} \nu(P)=\int_{C_{n}(\Omega)}G_{\Omega}^{a}(P,Q) \,d\nu(Q). $$

The Poisson-Sch integral \(PI_{\Omega}^{a} \mu(P)\ (\mbox{resp. }PI_{\Omega}^{a}[g](P)) \not\equiv+\infty\) (\(P\in C_{n}(\Omega)\)) of μ (resp. g) on \(C_{n}(\Omega)\) is defined as follows:

$$\begin{aligned}& PI_{\Omega}^{a} \mu(P)=\frac{1}{c_{n}}\int _{S_{n}(\Omega)}PI_{\Omega}^{a}(P,Q)\,d\mu(Q) \\& \biggl(\mbox{resp. } PI_{\Omega}^{a} [g](P)=\frac{1}{c_{n}} \int_{S_{n}(\Omega)}PI_{\Omega}^{a}(P,Q)g(Q)\,d \sigma_{Q} \biggr), \end{aligned}$$

where

$$PI_{\Omega}^{a}(P,Q)=\frac{\partial G_{\Omega}^{a}(P,Q)}{\partial n_{Q}},\qquad c_{n}= \left \{ \begin{array}{@{}l@{\quad}l} 2\pi, & n=2, \\ (n-2)s_{n}, & n\geq3, \end{array} \right . $$

μ is a positive measure on \(\partial{C_{n}(\Omega)}\) (resp. g is a continuous function on \(\partial{C_{n}(\Omega)}\) and \(d\sigma_{Q}\) is the surface area element on \(S_{n}(\Omega)\)) and \({\partial}/{\partial n_{Q}}\) denotes the differentiation at Q along the inward normal into \(C_{n}(\Omega)\).

We define the positive measure \(\mu'\) on \(\mathbf{R}^{n}\) by

$$d\mu'(Q)=\left \{ \begin{array}{@{}l@{\quad}l} t^{-1}W(t)\frac{\partial\varphi(\Phi)}{\partial n_{\Phi}}\,d\mu(Q), & Q=(t,\Phi)\in S_{n}(\Omega; (1,+\infty)) ,\\ 0,& Q\in\mathbf{R}^{n}-S_{n}(\Omega; (1,+\infty)). \end{array} \right . $$

Remark 1

If \(d\mu(Q)=|g(Q)|\,d\sigma_{Q}\) (\(Q=(t,\Phi)\in S_{n}(\Omega)\)), where \(g(Q)\) is a continuous function on \(\partial{C_{n}(\Omega)}\), then we have (see [10, 11])

$$d\mu''(Q)=\left \{ \begin{array}{@{}l@{\quad}l} |g(Q)|t^{-1}W(t)\frac{\partial\varphi(\Phi)}{\partial n_{\Phi}}\,d\sigma _{Q}, & Q=(t,\Phi)\in S_{n}(\Omega; (1,+\infty)) ,\\ 0,& Q\in\mathbf{R}^{n}-S_{n}(\Omega; (1,+\infty)). \end{array} \right . $$

Let \(\epsilon>0\), \(0\leq\alpha\leq n\), and λ be any positive measure on \(\mathbf{R}^{n}\) having finite total mass. For each \(P=(r,\Theta)\in\mathbf{R}^{n}-\{O\}\), the maximal function \(M(P;\lambda,\alpha)\) is defined by (see [1215])

$$M(P;\lambda,\alpha)=\sup_{ 0< \rho<\frac{r}{2}}\lambda \bigl(B(P,\rho) \bigr)V( \rho)W(\rho)\rho^{\alpha-2}. $$

The set

$$\bigl\{ P=(r,\Theta)\in\mathbf{R}^{n}-\{O\}; M(P;\lambda, \alpha)V^{-1}(r)W^{-1}(r)r^{2-\alpha}>\epsilon \bigr\} $$

is denoted by \(E(\epsilon; \lambda, \alpha)\).

As on cones, Qiao [16], Corollaries 2.1 and 2.2, have proved the following result. For similar results, we refer the reader to papers by Qiao and Deng (see [17, 18]).

Theorem A

Let g be a continuous function on \(\partial{C_{n}(\Omega)}\) satisfying

$$ \int_{S_{n}(\Omega)}\frac{|g(t,\Phi)|}{1+r^{-\iota_{0}^{-}+1}}\,d\sigma _{Q}< \infty. $$
(1.4)

Then \(PI_{\Omega}^{0}[g](P)\in H(0,\Omega)\) and

$$ \lim_{r \rightarrow\infty, P\in C_{n}(\Omega)} r^{-\iota_{0}^{+}}\varphi ^{n-1}(\Theta) PI_{\Omega}^{0} [g](P)=0 \quad \bigl(P=(r,\Theta)\in C_{n}(\Omega) \bigr). $$
(1.5)

Theorem B

Letgbe a continuous function on \(\partial{C_{n}(\Omega)}\)satisfying (1.4). Then the function \(PI_{\Omega}^{0}[g](P)\) (\(P=(r,\Theta)\)) satisfies

$$\begin{aligned}& PI_{\Omega}^{0}[g]\in C^{2} \bigl(C_{n}( \Omega) \bigr)\cap C^{0} \bigl(\overline{C_{n}(\Omega)} \bigr), \\& PI_{\Omega}^{0}[g](P)\in H(0,\Omega), \\& PI_{\Omega}^{0}[g]=g \quad\textit{on } \partial{C_{n}( \Omega),} \end{aligned}$$

and (1.5) holds.

Now we state our first result.

Theorem 1

Letϵbe a sufficiently small positive number andμbe a positive measure on \(\partial{C_{n}(\Omega)}\)such that

$$PI_{\Omega}^{a}\mu(P)\not\equiv+\infty \quad \bigl(P=(r,\Theta) \in C_{n}(\Omega) \bigr). $$

Then there exists a covering \(\{r_{j},R_{j}\}\)of \(E(\epsilon; \mu',n-\alpha)\) (\(\subset C_{n}(\Omega)\)) satisfying

$$ \sum_{j=0}^{\infty} \biggl(\frac{r_{j}}{R_{j}} \biggr)^{2-\alpha}\frac {V(R_{j})W(R_{j})}{V(r_{j})W(r_{j})}< \infty, $$
(1.6)

such that

$$\lim_{r \rightarrow\infty, P\in C_{n}(\Omega)-E(\epsilon; \mu',n-\alpha)} V^{-1}(r)\varphi^{\alpha-1}(\Theta) PI_{\Omega}^{a} \mu(P)=0 \quad \bigl(P=(r,\Theta)\in C_{n}(\Omega) \bigr). $$

Corollary 1

Letμbe a positive measure on \(S_{n}(\Omega)\)such that \(PI_{\Omega}^{a} \mu(P)\not\equiv+\infty \) (\(P\in C_{n}(\Omega)\)). Then for a sufficiently largeLand a sufficiently smallϵwe have

$$\bigl\{ P\in C_{n} \bigl(\Omega; (L, +\infty) \bigr); PI_{\Omega}^{a} \mu(P)\geq V(r)\varphi^{1-\alpha}(\Theta) \bigr\} \subset E \bigl(\epsilon; \mu',n-\alpha \bigr). $$

From (1.3) and Remark 1 we know that the following result generalizes Theorem A in the case \(d\mu(Q)=|g(Q)|\,d\sigma_{Q}\).

Corollary 2

Let g be a continuous function on \(\partial{C_{n}(\Omega)}\) satisfying

$$ \int_{S_{n}(\Omega)}\frac{1}{1+tW^{-1}(t)}\,d\mu(Q)< \infty. $$
(1.7)

Then \(PI_{\Omega}^{a} \mu(P)\in H(a,\Omega)\) and

$$\lim_{r \rightarrow\infty, P\in C_{n}(\Omega)} V^{-1}(r)\varphi ^{n-1}(\Theta) PI_{\Omega}^{a} \mu(P)=0 \quad \bigl(P=(r,\Theta)\in C_{n}(\Omega) \bigr). $$

Our next aim is concerned with the solutions of the Dirichlet problem for the Schrödinger operator \(\operatorname{Sch}_{a}\) on \(C_{n}(\Omega)\) and the growth property of them.

Theorem 2

Letα, ϵbe defined as in Theorem  1andgbe a continuous function on \(\partial{C_{n}(\Omega)}\)satisfying

$$ \int_{1}^{\infty}t^{-1}V^{-1}(t) \biggl(\int_{\partial{\Omega}} \bigl|g(t,\Phi ) \bigr|\,d_{\sigma_{\Phi}} \biggr)\,dt< + \infty, $$
(1.8)

where \(d_{\sigma_{\Phi}}\)is the surface area element ofΩ at \(\Phi\in\partial{\Omega}\). Then the function \(PI_{\Omega}^{a}[g](P)\) (\(P=(r,\Theta)\)) satisfies

$$\begin{aligned}& PI_{\Omega}^{a}[g]\in C^{2} \bigl(C_{n}( \Omega) \bigr)\cap C^{0} \bigl(\overline{C_{n}(\Omega)} \bigr), \\& PI_{\Omega}^{a}[g]\in H(a,\Omega), \\& PI_{\Omega}^{a}[g]=g \quad \textit{on } \partial{C_{n}( \Omega),} \end{aligned}$$

and there exists a covering \(\{r_{j},R_{j}\}\)of \(E(\epsilon; \mu'',\alpha)\)satisfying (1.5) such that

$$ \lim_{r \rightarrow\infty, P\in C_{n}(\Omega)-E(\epsilon; \mu'',\alpha)} V^{-1}(r)\varphi^{\alpha-1}(\Theta) PI_{\Omega}^{a}[g](P)=0. $$
(1.9)

Remark 2

In the case \(a=0\), (1.8) is equivalent to (1.4) from (1.3). In the case \(\alpha=n\), (1.6) is a finite sum, then the set \(E(\epsilon; \mu'',0)\) is a bounded set and (1.9) holds in \(C_{n}(\Omega)\), which generalizes Theorem B.

Some lemmas

Lemma 1

(see [1], p.354)

$$\begin{aligned}& PI_{\Omega}^{a}(P,Q)\approx t^{-1}V(t)W(r)\varphi( \Theta)\frac{\partial \varphi(\Phi)}{\partial n_{\Phi}} \end{aligned}$$
(2.1)
$$\begin{aligned}& \biggl(\textit{resp. } PI_{\Omega}^{a}(P,Q)\approx V(r)t^{-1}W(t)\varphi(\Theta )\frac{\partial\varphi(\Phi)}{\partial n_{\Phi}} \biggr), \end{aligned}$$
(2.2)

for any \(P=(r,\Theta)\in C_{n}(\Omega)\)and any \(Q=(t,\Phi)\in S_{n}(\Omega)\)satisfying \(0<\frac{t}{r}\leq\frac{4}{5}\) (resp. \(0<\frac{r}{t}\leq\frac{4}{5}\));

$$ PI_{\Omega}^{0}(P,Q)\lesssim\frac{\varphi(\Theta)}{t^{n-1}} \frac {\partial\varphi(\Phi)}{\partial n_{\Phi}} +\frac{r\varphi(\Theta)}{|P-Q|^{n}}\frac{\partial \varphi(\Phi)}{\partial n_{\Phi}}, $$
(2.3)

for any \(P=(r,\Theta)\in C_{n}(\Omega)\)and any \(Q=(t,\Phi)\in S_{n}(\Omega; (\frac{4}{5}r,\frac{5}{4}r))\).

Lemma 2

Letμbe a positive measure on \(S_{n}(\Omega)\)such that there is a sequence of points \(P_{i}=(r_{i},\Theta_{i})\in C_{n}(\Omega)\), \(r_{i}\rightarrow +\infty \) (\(i\rightarrow+\infty\)) satisfying \(PI_{\Omega}^{a}\mu(P_{i})<+\infty\) (\(i=1,2,\ldots\)). Then for a positive numberl,

$$ \int_{S_{n}(\Omega;(l,+\infty))}\frac{W(t)}{t}\frac{\partial\varphi(\Phi )}{\partial n_{\Phi}}\,d\mu(Q)< + \infty $$
(2.4)

and

$$ \lim_{R\rightarrow+\infty}\frac{W(R)}{V(R)}\int_{S_{n}(\Omega;(0,R))} \frac {V(t)}{t}\frac{\partial\varphi(\Phi)}{\partial n_{\Phi}}\,d\mu(Q)=0. $$
(2.5)

Proof

Take a positive number l satisfying \(P_{1}=(r_{1},\Theta_{1})\in C_{n}(\Omega)\), \(r_{1}\leq\frac{4}{5}l\). Then from (2.2), we have

$$V(r_{1})\varphi(\Theta_{1})\int_{S_{n}(\Omega;(l,+\infty))} \frac{W(t)}{t}\frac {\partial\varphi(\Phi)}{\partial n_{\Phi}}\,d\mu(Q)\lesssim\int_{S_{n}(\Omega)}PI_{\Omega}^{a}(P,Q) \,d\mu(Q)< +\infty, $$

which gives (2.4). For any positive number ϵ, from (2.4), we can take a number \(R_{\epsilon}\) such that

$$\int_{S_{n}(\Omega;(R_{\epsilon},+\infty))}\frac{W(t)}{t}\frac{\partial \varphi(\Phi)}{\partial n_{\Phi}}\,d\mu(Q)< \frac{\epsilon}{2}. $$

If we take a point \(P_{i}=(r_{i},\Theta_{i})\in C_{n}(\Omega)\), \(r_{i}\geq \frac{5}{4}R_{\epsilon}\), then we have from (2.1)

$$W(r_{i})\varphi(\Theta_{i})\int_{S_{n}(\Omega;(0,R_{\epsilon}])} \frac {V(t)}{t}\frac{\partial\varphi(\Phi)}{\partial n_{\Phi}}\,d\mu(Q) \lesssim\int_{S_{n}(\Omega)}PI_{\Omega}^{a}(P,Q) \,d\mu(Q)< +\infty. $$

If R (\(R>R_{\epsilon}\)) is sufficiently large, then

$$\begin{aligned} &\frac{W(R)}{V(R)}\int_{S_{n}(\Omega;(0,R))}\frac{V(t)}{t} \frac{\partial \varphi(\Phi)}{\partial n_{\Phi}}\,d\mu(Q) \\ &\quad\lesssim\frac{W(R)}{V(R)}\int_{S_{n}(\Omega;(0,R_{\epsilon}])}\frac {V(t)}{t} \frac{\partial\varphi(\Phi)}{\partial n_{\Phi}}\,d\mu(Q)+\int_{S_{n}(\Omega;(R_{\epsilon},R))}\frac{W(t)}{t} \frac{\partial\varphi(\Phi )}{\partial n_{\Phi}}\,d\mu(Q) \\ &\quad\lesssim\frac{W(R)}{V(R)}\int_{S_{n}(\Omega;(0,R_{\epsilon}])}\frac {V(t)}{t} \frac{\partial \varphi(\Phi)}{\partial n_{\Phi}}\,d\mu(Q)+\int_{S_{n}(\Omega;(R_{\epsilon},+\infty))}\frac {W(t)}{t} \frac{\partial \varphi(\Phi)}{\partial n_{\Phi}}\,d\mu(Q) \\ &\quad\lesssim\epsilon, \end{aligned}$$

which gives (2.5). □

Lemma 3

Let \(\epsilon>0\), \(0\leq\alpha\leq n\)andλbe any positive measure on \(\mathbf{R}^{n}\)having a finite total mass. Then \(E(\epsilon; \lambda, \alpha)\)has a covering \(\{r_{j},R_{j}\}\) (\(j=1,2,\ldots\)) satisfying

$$\sum_{j=1}^{\infty} \biggl(\frac{r_{j}}{R_{j}} \biggr)^{2-\alpha}\frac {V(R_{j})W(R_{j})}{V(r_{j})W(r_{j})}< \infty. $$

Proof

Set

$$E_{j}(\epsilon;\lambda, \beta)= \bigl\{ P=(r,\Theta)\in E(\epsilon; \lambda, \beta):2^{j}\leq r< 2^{j+1} \bigr\} \quad (j=2,3,4, \ldots). $$

If \(P=(r,\Theta)\in E_{j}(\epsilon; \lambda, \beta)\), then there exists a positive number \(\rho(P)\) such that

$$\biggl(\frac{\rho(P)}{r} \biggr)^{2-\alpha}\frac{V(r)W(R)}{V(\rho(P))W(\rho (P))}\approx \biggl( \frac{\rho(P)}{r} \biggr)^{n-\alpha}\leq \frac{\lambda(B(P,\rho(P)))}{\epsilon}. $$

Since \(E_{j}(\epsilon; \lambda, \beta)\) can be covered by the union of a family of balls \(\{B(P_{j,i},\rho_{j,i}):P_{j,i}\in E_{k}(\epsilon; \lambda, \beta)\}\) (\(\rho_{j,i}=\rho(P_{j,i})\)). By the Vitali lemma (see [19]), there exists \(\Lambda_{j} \subset E_{j}(\epsilon; \lambda, \beta)\), which is at most countable, such that \(\{B(P_{j,i},\rho_{j,i}):P_{j,i}\in\Lambda_{j} \}\) are disjoint and \(E_{j}(\epsilon; \lambda, \beta) \subset \bigcup_{P_{j,i}\in\Lambda_{j}} B(P_{j,i},5\rho_{j,i})\).

Therefore

$$\bigcup_{j=2}^{\infty}E_{j}( \epsilon; \lambda, \beta) \subset \bigcup_{j=2}^{\infty}\bigcup_{P_{j,i}\in\Lambda_{j}} B(P_{j,i},5 \rho_{j,i}). $$

On the other hand, note that \(\bigcup_{P_{j,i}\in\Lambda_{j}} B(P_{j,i},\rho_{j,i}) \subset\{P=(r,\Theta):2^{j-1}\leq r<2^{j+2}\} \), so that

$$\sum_{P_{j,i} \in \Lambda_{j}} \biggl(\frac{5\rho_{j,i}}{|P_{j,i}|} \biggr)^{2-\alpha}\frac{ V(|P_{j,i}|)W(|P_{j,i}|) }{V(\rho_{j,i})W(\rho_{j,i}) }\leq \frac{5^{n-\alpha}}{\epsilon} \lambda \bigl(C_{n} \bigl(\Omega; \bigl[2^{j-1},2^{j+2} \bigr) \bigr) \bigr). $$

Hence we obtain

$$\begin{aligned} \sum_{j=1}^{\infty}\sum _{P_{j,i} \in \Lambda_{j}} \biggl(\frac{\rho_{j,i}}{|P_{j,i}|} \biggr)^{2-\alpha} \frac{ V(|P_{j,i}|)W(|P_{j,i}|) }{V(\rho_{j,i})W(\rho_{j,i}) } \thickapprox& \sum_{j=1}^{\infty} \sum_{P_{j,i} \in\Lambda_{j}} \biggl(\frac{\rho_{j,i}}{|P_{j,i}|} \biggr)^{n-\alpha} \\ \leq&\sum_{j=1}^{\infty}\frac{ \lambda(C_{n}(\Omega ;[2^{j-1},2^{j+2})))}{\epsilon} \\ \leq& \frac{3\lambda(\mathbf{R}^{n})}{\epsilon}. \end{aligned}$$

Since \(E(\epsilon; \lambda, \beta)\cap\{P=(r,\Theta)\in\mathbf{R}^{n}; r\geq4\}=\bigcup_{j=2}^{\infty}E_{j}(\epsilon;\lambda, \beta)\). Then \(E(\epsilon; \lambda, \beta)\) is finally covered by a sequence of balls \(\{B(P_{j,i},\rho_{j,i}), B(P_{1},6)\}\) (\(j=2,3,\ldots\) ; \(i=1,2,\ldots\)) satisfying

$$\sum_{j,i} \biggl(\frac{\rho_{j,i}}{|P_{j,i}|} \biggr)^{2-\alpha}\frac{ V(|P_{j,i}|)W(|P_{j,i}|) }{V(\rho_{j,i})W(\rho_{j,i}) }\approx\sum_{j,i} \biggl(\frac{\rho_{j,i}}{|P_{j,i}|} \biggr)^{n-\alpha}\leq\frac{3\lambda (\mathbf{R}^{n})}{\epsilon}+6^{n-\alpha}< + \infty, $$

where \(B(P_{1},6)\) (\(P_{1}=(1,0,\ldots,0)\in\mathbf{R}^{n}\)) is the ball which covers \(\{P=(r,\Theta)\in\mathbf{R}^{n}; r<4\}\). □

Proof of Theorem 1

Take any point \(P=(r,\Theta)\in C_{n}(\Omega; (R,+\infty))-E(\epsilon; \mu', \alpha)\), where R (\(\leq\frac{4}{5}r\)) is a sufficiently large number and ϵ is a sufficiently small positive number.

Write

$$PI_{\Omega}^{a}\mu(P)=PI_{\Omega}^{a}(1) (P)+PI_{\Omega}^{a}(2) (P)+PI_{\Omega }^{a}(3) (P), $$

where

$$\begin{aligned}& PI_{\Omega}^{a}(1) (P)=\frac{1}{c_{n}}\int _{S_{n}(\Omega;(0,\frac {4}{5}r])}PI_{\Omega}^{a}(P,Q)\,d\mu(Q), \\& PI_{\Omega}^{a}(2) (P)=\frac{1}{c_{n}}\int _{S_{n}(\Omega;(\frac{4}{5}r,\frac {5}{4}r))}PI_{\Omega}^{a}(P,Q)\,d\mu(Q), \end{aligned}$$

and

$$PI_{\Omega}^{a}(3) (P)=\frac{1}{c_{n}}\int _{S_{n}(\Omega;[\frac{5}{4}r,\infty ))}PI_{\Omega}^{a}(P,Q)\,d\mu(Q). $$

The relation \(G_{\Omega}^{a}(P,Q)\leq G_{\Omega}^{0}(P,Q)\) implies this inequality (see [20])

$$ PI_{\Omega}^{a}(P,Q)\leq PI_{\Omega}^{0}(P,Q). $$
(3.1)

By (2.1), (2.2), and Lemma 2, we have the following growth estimates:

$$\begin{aligned}& PI_{\Omega}^{a}(1) (P) \lesssim V(r)\varphi(\Theta) \frac{W(\frac{4}{5}r)}{V(\frac{4}{5}r)}\int_{S_{n}(\Omega;(0,\frac{4}{5}r])} \frac{V(t)}{t} \frac{\partial \varphi(\Phi)}{\partial n_{\Phi}}\,d\mu(Q) \lesssim \epsilon V(r)\varphi(\Theta), \end{aligned}$$
(3.2)
$$\begin{aligned}& PI_{\Omega}^{a}(3) (P) \lesssim V(r)\varphi(\Theta) \int_{S_{n}(\Omega;[\frac{5}{4}r,\infty))}\frac {W(t)}{t} \frac{\partial \varphi(\Phi)}{\partial n_{\Phi}}\,d\mu(Q) \lesssim \epsilon V(r)\varphi(\Theta). \end{aligned}$$
(3.3)

By (3.1) and (2.3), we write

$$PI_{\Omega}^{a}(2) (P)\lesssim PI_{\Omega}^{a}(21) (P)+PI_{\Omega}^{a}(22) (P), $$

where

$$PI_{\Omega}^{a}(21) (P)=\int_{S_{n}(\Omega;(\frac{4}{5}r,\frac {5}{4}r))}V(t) \varphi(\Theta)\,d\mu'(Q) $$

and

$$PI_{\Omega}^{a}(22) (P)=\int_{S_{n}(\Omega;(\frac{4}{5}r,\frac{5}{4}r))} \frac {\operatorname{tr}\varphi(\Theta)}{|P-Q|^{n}W(t)}\,d\mu'(Q). $$

We first have

$$ PI_{\Omega}^{a}(21) (P)\lesssim \epsilon V(r)\varphi(\Theta) $$
(3.4)

from Lemma 2.

Next, we shall estimate \(PI_{\Omega}^{a}(22)(P)\). Take a sufficiently small positive number c such that \(S_{n}(\Omega;(\frac{4}{5}r,\frac{5}{4}r))\subset B(P,\frac{1}{2}r)\) for any \(P=(r,\Theta)\in\Lambda(c)\), where

$$\Lambda(c)= \Bigl\{ P=(r,\Theta)\in C_{n}(\Omega); \inf _{z\in\partial\Omega } \bigl|(1,\Theta)-(1,z) \bigr|< c, 0<r<\infty \Bigr\} , $$

and divide \(C_{n}(\Omega)\) into two sets \(\Lambda(c)\) and \(C_{n}(\Omega)-\Lambda(c)\).

If \(P=(r,\Theta)\in C_{n}(\Omega)-\Lambda(c)\), then there exists a positive \(c'\) such that \(|P-Q|\geq c'r\) for any \(Q\in S_{n}(\Omega)\), and hence

$$ PI_{\Omega}^{a}(22) (P)\lesssim \epsilon V(r)\varphi( \Theta) $$
(3.5)

from Lemma 2.

We shall consider the case \(P\in\Lambda(c)\). Now put

$$H_{i}(P)= \biggl\{ Q\in S_{n} \biggl(\Omega; \biggl( \frac{4}{5}r,\frac{5}{4}r \biggr) \biggr); 2^{i-1}\delta(P) \leq|P-Q|< 2^{i}\delta(P) \biggr\} . $$

Since \(S_{n}(\Omega)\cap\{Q\in\mathbf{R}^{n}: |P-Q|< \delta(P)\}=\varnothing\), we have

$$PI_{\Omega}^{a}(22) (P)=\sum_{i=1}^{i(P)} \int_{H_{i}(P)}\frac{\operatorname{tr}\varphi (\Theta)}{|P-Q|^{n}W(t)}\,d\mu'(Q), $$

where \(i(P)\) is a positive integer satisfying \(2^{i(P)-1}\delta(P)\leq\frac{r}{2}<2^{i(P)}\delta(P)\).

By (1.1) we have \(r\varphi(\Theta)\lesssim\delta(P)\) (\(P=(r,\Theta)\in C_{n}(\Omega)\)), and hence

$$\begin{aligned} \int_{H_{i}(P)}\frac{\operatorname{tr}\varphi(\Theta)}{|P-Q|^{n}W(t)}\,d\mu'(Q) \lesssim& \frac{r^{2-\alpha}}{W(r)}\varphi^{1-\alpha}(\Theta) \frac{\mu '(H_{i}(P))}{\{2^{i}\delta(P)\}^{n-\alpha}} \end{aligned}$$

for \(i=0,1,2,\ldots,i(P)\).

Since \(P=(r,\Theta)\notin E(\epsilon; \mu', \alpha)\), we have from (1.3)

$$\begin{aligned} \frac{\mu'(H_{i}(P))}{\{2^{i}\delta(P)\}^{n-\alpha}} \lesssim& \mu' \bigl(B \bigl(P,2^{i}\delta(P) \bigr) \bigr)V \bigl(2^{i}\delta(P) \bigr)W \bigl(2^{i}\delta(P) \bigr) \bigl\{ 2^{i}\delta(P) \bigr\} ^{\alpha-2} \\ \lesssim& M \bigl(P; \mu', \alpha \bigr) \\ \leq& \epsilon\epsilon V(r)W(r)r^{\alpha-2} \quad \bigl(i=0,1,2, \ldots,i(P)-1 \bigr) \end{aligned}$$

and

$$\frac{\mu'(H_{i(P)}(P))}{\{2^{i}\delta(P)\}^{\alpha}}\lesssim\mu ' \biggl(B \biggl(P, \frac{r}{2} \biggr) \biggr)V \biggl(\frac{r}{2} \biggr)W \biggl( \frac{r}{2} \biggr) \biggl(\frac{r}{2} \biggr)^{\alpha-2} \leq \epsilon V(r)W(r)r^{\alpha-2}. $$

So

$$ PI_{\Omega}^{a}(22) (P)\lesssim\epsilon V(r) \varphi^{1-\alpha}(\Theta). $$
(3.6)

Combining (3.2)-(3.6), we finally find that if L is sufficiently large and ϵ is sufficiently small, then \(PI_{\Omega}^{a}\mu(P)=o(V(r)\varphi^{1-\alpha}(\Theta))\) as \(r\rightarrow\infty\), where \(P=(r,\Theta)\in C_{n}(\Omega; (R,+\infty))-E(\epsilon; \mu', \alpha)\). Finally, there exists an additional finite ball \(B_{0}\) covering \(C_{n}(\Omega; (0,R])\), which, together with Lemma 3, gives the conclusion of Theorem 1.

Proof of Theorem 2

For any fixed \(P=(r,\Theta)\in C_{n}(\Omega)\), take a number R satisfying \(R>\max(1,\frac{5}{4}r)\). By (1.7) and (2.2), we have

$$\begin{aligned}[b] &\frac{1}{c_{n}}\int_{S_{n}(\Omega;(R,+\infty))}PI_{\Omega }^{a}(P,Q) \bigl|g(Q) \bigr|\,d\sigma_{Q} \\ &\quad\lesssim V(r)\varphi(\Theta)\int_{R}^{\infty}t^{-1}V^{-1}(t) \biggl(\int_{\partial {\Omega}} \bigl|g(t,\Phi) \bigr|\,d_{\sigma_{\Phi}} \biggr)\,dt< \infty. \end{aligned} $$

Thus \(PI_{\Omega}^{a}[g](P)\) is finite for any \(P\in C_{n}(\Omega)\). Since \(PI_{\Omega}^{a}(P,Q)\in H(a,\Omega)\in H(a,\Omega)\) for any \(Q\in S_{n}(\Omega)\), \(PI_{\Omega}^{a}[g](P)\in H(a,\Omega)\).

Now we study the boundary behavior of \(PI_{\Omega}^{a}[g](P)\). Let \(Q'=(t',\Phi')\in\partial{C_{n}(\Omega)}\) be any fixed point and L be any positive number such that \(L>\max\{t'+1,\frac{4}{5}R\}\).

Set \(\chi_{S(L)}\) is the characteristic function of \(S(L)=\{Q=(t,\Phi)\in\partial{C_{n}(\Omega)},t\leq L\}\) and write

$$PI_{\Omega}^{a}[g](P)=PI_{\Omega}^{a}(1)[g](P)+PI_{\Omega}^{a}(2)[g](P), $$

where

$$PI_{\Omega}^{a}(1)[g](P)=\frac{1}{c_{n}}\int _{S_{n}(\Omega;(0,\frac {5}{4}L])}PI_{\Omega}^{a}(P,Q)g(Q)\,d \sigma_{Q} $$

and

$$PI_{\Omega}^{a}(2)[g](P)=\frac{1}{c_{n}}\int _{S_{n}(\Omega;(\frac {5}{4}L,\infty))}P_{\Omega}^{a}(P,Q)g(Q)\,d \sigma_{Q}. $$

Notice that \(PI_{\Omega}^{a}(1)[g](P)\) is the Poisson-Sch integral of \(g(Q)\chi_{S(\frac{5}{4}L)}\), we have

$$\lim_{P\rightarrow Q',P\in C_{n}(\Omega)}PI_{\Omega}^{a}(1)[g](P)=g \bigl(Q' \bigr). $$

Since \(\lim_{\Theta\rightarrow\Phi'}\varphi(\Theta)=0\), \(PI_{\Omega}^{a}(2)[g](P)=O(V(r)\varphi(\Theta))\), and therefore tends to zero. So the function \(PI_{\Omega}^{a}[g](P)\) can be continuously extended to \(\overline{C_{n}(\Omega)}\) such that

$$\lim_{P\rightarrow Q',P\in C_{n}(\Omega)}PI_{\Omega}^{a}[g](P)=g \bigl(Q' \bigr) $$

for any \(Q'=(t',\Phi')\in \partial{C_{n}(\Omega)}\) from the arbitrariness of L. Further, (1.9) is the conclusion of Theorem 1. Thus we complete the proof of Theorem 2.

Change history

  • 22 January 2020

    The Editors-in-Chief have retracted this article [1] because the results presented are invalid. The article also shows significant overlap with a number of previously published articles [2–5] and evidence of both peer review and authorship manipulation.

    The authors have not responded to any correspondence regarding this retraction.

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Acknowledgements

The last half of this work was done while the second author stayed at Istanbul University during the program ‘Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations’. We are grateful to Istanbul University and the steering committee of the program. The authors are very thankful to the anonymous referees for their valuable comments and constructive suggestions, which helped to improve the quality of the paper.

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Correspondence to Eve Yuzbasi.

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Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

All authors contributed equally to the manuscript and read and approved the final manuscript.

The Editors-in-Chief have retracted this article [1] because the results presented are invalid. The article also shows significant overlap with a number of previously published articles [2-5] and evidence of both peer review and authorship manipulation. The authors have not responded to any correspondence with regards to this retraction.

[1] Xue, G. & Yuzbasi, E. Fixed Point Theory Appl (2015) 2015: 34. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13663-015-0275-8

[2] Lei Qiao, Guan-Tie Deng Taiwanese J. Math. Volume 15, Number 5 (2011), 2213-2233 https://projecteuclid.org/euclid.twjm/1500406431

[3] Qiao, L. and Deng, G. (2012), Integral representation for the solution of the stationary Schrödinger equation in a cone. Math. Nachr., 285: 2029-2038. doi:10.1002/mana.201100251

[4] Lei Qiao, Bai-Yun Su, Guan-Tie Deng, Taiwanese J. Math. Volume 16, Number 5 (2012), 1733-1748 https://projecteuclid.org/euclid.twjm/1500406793

[5] Li, Z. & Ychussie, B. Fixed Point Theory Appl (2015) 2015: 89. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13663-015-0342-1

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Xue, G., Yuzbasi, E. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Fixed point theorems for solutions of the stationary Schrödinger equation on cones. Fixed Point Theory Appl 2015, 34 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13663-015-0275-8

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Keywords

  • stationary Schrödinger equation
  • Poisson-Sch integral
  • cone