- Research
- Open Access

# Quasi-contractions restricted with linear bounded mappings in cone metric spaces

- Zhilong Li
^{1, 2}Email author and - Shujun Jiang
^{3}

**2014**:87

https://doi.org/10.1186/1687-1812-2014-87

© Li and Jiang; licensee Springer. 2014

**Received:**26 November 2013**Accepted:**19 March 2014**Published:**3 April 2014

## Abstract

In this paper, we introduce the notion of a quasi-contraction restricted with a linear bounded mapping in cone metric spaces, and prove a unique fixed point theorem for this quasi-contraction without the normality of the cone. It is worth mentioning that the main result in this paper could not be derived from Ćirić’s result by the scalarization method, and hence indeed improves many recent results in cone metric spaces.

**MSC:**06A07, 47H10.

## Keywords

- quasi-contraction
- cone metric space

## 1 Introduction

Ćirić [1] introduced and studied Ćirić’s quasi-contractions as one of the most general classes of contractive-type mappings. He proved the well-known theorem that every Ćirić’s quasi-contraction *T* has a unique fixed point. Recently, Ilić and Rakočević [2] generalized this notion to cone metric spaces and extended Ćirić’s result to the setting of cone metric spaces, which was then improved by [3, 4]. Afterward, Arandelović and Kečkić [5] considered nonlinear quasi-contractions in cone metric spaces, and proved a fixed point result by the nonlinear scalarization method of Du [6]. It should be pointed out that Theorem 2.1 of [2], Theorem 2.2 of [3], and Theorem 2.1 of [4] could be derived from Ćirić’s result by the nonlinear scalarization method of Du [6]; see (ii) of Remark 2.

It is worth mentioning that the main result in this paper could not be derived from Ćirić’s result by the scalarization method, and hence it indeed improves the corresponding results of [1–4].

## 2 Preliminaries

Let *E* be a topological vector space. A cone of *E* is a nonempty closed subset *P* of *E* such that $ax+by\in P$ for each $x,y\in P$ and each $a,b\ge 0$, and $P\cap (-P)=\{\theta \}$, where *θ* is the zero element of *E*. A cone *P* of *E* determines a partial order ⪯ on *E* by $x\u2aafy\iff y-x\in P$ for each $x,y\in X$. In this case *E* is called an ordered topological vector space.

A cone *P* of a topological vector space *E* is solid if $intP\ne \mathrm{\varnothing}$, where int*P* is the interior of *P*. For each $x,y\in E$ with $y-x\in intP$, we write $x\ll y$. Let *P* be a solid cone of a topological vector space *E*. A sequence $\{{u}_{n}\}$ of *E* weakly converges [7] to $u\in E$ (denote ${u}_{n}\stackrel{w}{\to}u$) if for each $\u03f5\in intP$, there exists a positive integer ${n}_{0}$ such that $u-\u03f5\ll {u}_{n}\ll u+\u03f5$ for all $n\ge {n}_{0}$.

*D*of a topological vector space

*E*is order-convex if $[x,y]\subset D$ for each $x,y\in D$ with $x\u2aafy$, where $[x,y]=\{z\in E:x\u2aafz\u2aafy\}$. An ordered topological vector space

*E*is order-convex if it has a base of neighborhoods of

*θ*consisting of order-convex subsets. In this case the cone

*P*is said to be normal. In the case of a normed vector space, this condition means that the unit ball is order-convex, which is equivalent to the condition that there is some positive number

*N*such that $x,y\in E$ and $\theta \u2aafx\u2aafy$ implies that $\parallel x\parallel \le N\parallel y\parallel $, and the minimal

*N*is called a normal constant of

*P*. Another equivalent condition is that

*P*is a non-normal cone of a normed vector space $(E,\parallel \cdot \parallel )$ if and only if there exist sequences $\{{u}_{n}\},\{{v}_{n}\}\subset P$ such that

which implies that the Sandwich theorem does not hold. However, in the sense of weak convergence, the Sandwich theorem still holds even if *P* is non-normal, and we have the following lemma.

**Lemma 1**

*Let*

*P*

*be a solid cone of a topological vector space*

*E*

*and*$\{{u}_{n}\},\{{v}_{n}\},\{{z}_{n}\}\subset E$.

*If*

*and there exists some* $z\in E$ *such that* ${u}_{n}\stackrel{w}{\to}z$ *and* ${v}_{n}\stackrel{w}{\to}z$, *then* ${z}_{n}\stackrel{w}{\to}z$.

*Proof*By ${u}_{n}\stackrel{w}{\to}w$ and ${v}_{n}\stackrel{w}{\to}w$, for each $\u03f5\in intP$, there exists some positive integer ${n}_{0}$ such that for all $n\ge {n}_{0}$,

Thus we have $z-\u03f5\ll {u}_{n}\u2aaf{z}_{n}\u2aaf{v}_{n}\u2aaf{v}_{n}\ll z+\u03f5$ for all $n\ge {n}_{0}$, *i.e.*, ${z}_{n}\stackrel{w}{\to}z$. The proof is complete. □

The following lemma needed in the further arguments, directly follows from Lemma 1 and Remark 1 of [7].

**Lemma 2** *Let* *P* *be a solid cone of a normed vector space* $(E,\parallel \cdot \parallel )$. *Then for each sequence* $\{{u}_{n}\}\subset E$, ${u}_{n}\stackrel{\parallel \cdot \parallel}{\to}u$ *implies* ${u}_{n}\stackrel{w}{\to}u$. *Moreover*, *if* *P* *is normal*, *then* ${u}_{n}\stackrel{w}{\to}u$ *implies* ${u}_{n}\stackrel{\parallel \cdot \parallel}{\to}u$.

Let *X* be a nonempty set and *P* be a cone of a topological vector space *E*. A cone metric on *X* is a mapping $d:X\times X\to P$ such that for each $x,y,z\in X$,

(d1) $d(x,y)=\theta \iff x=y$;

(d2) $d(x,y)=d(y,x)$;

(d3) $d(x,y)\u2aafd(x,z)+d(z,y)$.

The pair $(X,d)$ is called a cone metric space over *P*. A cone metric *d* on *X* over a solid cone *P* generates a topology ${\tau}_{d}$ on *X* which has a base of the family of open *d*-balls $\{{B}_{d}(x,\u03f5):x\in X,\theta \ll \u03f5\}$, where ${B}_{d}(x,\u03f5)=\{y\in X:d(x,y)\ll \u03f5\}$ for each $x\in X$ and each $\u03f5\in intP$.

Let $(X,d)$ be a cone metric space over a solid cone *P* of a topological vector space *E*. A sequence $\{{x}_{n}\}$ of *X* converges [7, 8] to $x\in X$ (denote by ${x}_{n}\stackrel{{\tau}_{d}}{\to}x$) if $d({x}_{n},x)\stackrel{w}{\to}\theta $. A sequence $\{{x}_{n}\}$ of *X* is Cauchy [7, 8], if $d({x}_{n},{x}_{m})\stackrel{w}{\to}\theta $. The cone metric space $(X,d)$ is complete [7, 8], if each Cauchy sequence $\{{x}_{n}\}$ of *X* converges to a point $x\in X$.

## 3 Main results

*P*be a solid cone of a normed vector space $(E,\parallel \cdot \parallel )$. A mapping $T:X\to X$ is called a quasi-contraction restricted with a linear bounded mapping, if there exists $u\in \{d(x,y),d(x,Tx),d(y,Ty),d(x,Ty),d(y,Tx)\}$ and a linear bounded mapping $A:E\to E$ with $A(P)\subset P$ such that

Moreover, if *A* is a contractive mapping (*i.e.*, $A:E\to E$ is a one-to-one mapping such that $A(P)\subset P$, $I-A$ is one-to-one and $(I-A)(P)\subset P$), then *T* is reduced to the one considered by Arandelović and Kečkić [5]. In particular when $A=\lambda I$ with $\lambda \in (0,1)$, *T* is an Ilić-Rakočević’s quasi-contraction [2], and also an Arandelović-Kečkić’s quasi-contraction.

**Remark 1** (i) If $A:E\to E$ is a mapping such that $A(P)\subset P$ and $(I-A)(P)\subset P$, then it satisfies (H), and so every contractive mapping *A* satisfies (H). In fact, let $\{{u}_{n}\}\subset P$ with ${u}_{n}\stackrel{w}{\to}\theta $. By the definition of weak convergence, for each $\u03f5\in intP$, there exists a positive integer ${n}_{0}$ such that $\theta \u2aafA{u}_{n}\u2aaf{u}_{n}\ll \u03f5$, *i.e.*, $A{u}_{n}\stackrel{w}{\to}\theta $.

(ii) If *P* is normal then every linear bounded mapping $A:P\to P$ satisfies (H). In fact, let $\{{u}_{n}\}\subset P$ with ${u}_{n}\stackrel{w}{\to}\theta $. By Lemma 2 and the normality of *P*, ${u}_{n}\stackrel{\parallel \cdot \parallel}{\to}\theta $. And so $A{u}_{n}\stackrel{\parallel \cdot \parallel}{\to}\theta $ for each linear bounded mapping $A:P\to P$. Moreover, by Lemma 2, $A{u}_{n}\stackrel{w}{\to}\theta $.

The following example shows that there does exist some linear bounded mapping $A:P\to P$ satisfying (H) as *P* is non-normal.

**Example 1** Let $E={C}_{\mathbb{R}}^{1}[0,1]$ with the norm $\parallel u\parallel ={\parallel u\parallel}_{\mathrm{\infty}}+{\parallel {u}^{\prime}\parallel}_{\mathrm{\infty}}$ and $P=\{u\in E:u(t)\ge 0,t\in [0,1]\}$ which is a non-normal solid cone [9]. Let $(Au)(t)={\int}_{0}^{t}u(s)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}ds$ for each $u\in P$ and each $t\in [0,1]$.

For each $\epsilon >0$, there exists some $\u03f5\in intP$ such that $\parallel \u03f5\parallel <\u03f5$. For each $\{{u}_{n}\}\subset P$ with ${u}_{n}\stackrel{w}{\to}\theta $, there exists a positive integer ${n}_{0}$ such that for all $n\ge {n}_{0}$, ${u}_{n}\ll \u03f5$, and hence ${u}_{n}(t)\le \u03f5(t)$ for each $t\in [0,1]$. Thus we have ${\parallel {u}_{n}\parallel}_{\mathrm{\infty}}\le {\parallel \u03f5\parallel}_{\mathrm{\infty}}\le \parallel \u03f5\parallel <\epsilon $ for all $n\ge {n}_{0}$, *i.e.*, ${u}_{n}\stackrel{{\parallel \cdot \parallel}_{\mathrm{\infty}}}{\to}\theta $. By the definition of *A*, we get $\parallel A{u}_{n}\parallel ={\parallel A{u}_{n}\parallel}_{\mathrm{\infty}}+{\parallel {(A{u}_{n})}^{\prime}\parallel}_{\mathrm{\infty}}={\parallel A{u}_{n}\parallel}_{\mathrm{\infty}}+{\parallel {u}_{n}\parallel}_{\mathrm{\infty}}\le 2{\parallel {u}_{n}\parallel}_{\mathrm{\infty}}$, which together with ${u}_{n}\stackrel{{\parallel \cdot \parallel}_{\mathrm{\infty}}}{\to}\theta $ implies that $A{u}_{n}\stackrel{\parallel \cdot \parallel}{\to}\theta $. Thus by Lemma 2, we have $A{u}_{n}\stackrel{w}{\to}\theta $. This shows that *A* satisfies (H).

In the following, without using the normality of *P*, we show the unique existence of fixed point of quasi-contractions restricted with linear bounded mappings at the expense that (H) is satisfied.

**Theorem 1** *Let* $(X,d)$ *be a complete cone metric space over a solid cone* *P* *of a normed vector space* $(E,\parallel \cdot \parallel )$ *and* $T:X\to X$ *a quasi*-*contraction restricted with a linear bounded mapping*. *If the spectral radius* $r(A)<1$ *and* (H) *is satisfied*, *then* *T* *has a unique fixed point* ${x}^{\ast}\in X$ *such that for each* ${x}_{0}\in X$, ${x}_{n}\stackrel{{\tau}_{d}}{\to}{x}^{\ast}$, *where* ${x}_{n}={T}^{n}{x}_{0}$ *for all* *n*.

*Proof*By $r(L)<1$, the inverse of $I-A$ exists, denote it by ${(I-A)}^{-1}$. Moreover, by Neumann’s formula,

In the following we shall show this claim by induction.

If $n=1$, then $i=j=1$, and so the claim is trivial.

*n*. To prove that (4) holds for $n+1$, it suffices to show that

Consider the case that ${i}_{0}=1$.

*i.e.*, (5) holds.

*i.e.*, (5) holds.

*i.e.*, (5) holds.

*i.e.*, (5) holds.

Consider the case that $2\le {i}_{0}\le n$.

*i.e.*, (5) holds.

If $u=d({x}_{n},{x}_{n+1})$, or $u=d({x}_{{i}_{0}-1},{x}_{n+1})$, then set ${i}_{1}=n$, or ${i}_{1}={i}_{0}-1\ge 1$, respectively, and so (7) follows.

*i.e.*, (5) holds, and so the proof of our claim is complete, or there exists ${i}_{2}\in \{1,2,\dots ,n\}$ such that

*k*th step with $k\le n-1$, that is, there exist $k+1$ integers ${i}_{0},{i}_{1},\dots ,{i}_{k}\in \{1,2,\dots ,n\}$ such that

*i.e.*, (5) holds, and so the proof of our claim is complete.

*n*steps, then there exist $n+1$ integers ${i}_{0},{i}_{1},{i}_{n}\in \{1,2,\dots ,n\}$ such that

Note that $r({A}^{l-k})\le r{(A)}^{l-k}<1$, then by Neumann’s formula and $A(P)\subset P$, $I-{A}^{l-k}$ is invertible (denote its inverse by ${(I-{A}^{l-k})}^{-1}$), and ${(I-{A}^{l-k})}^{-1}(P)\subset P$. Acting (9) with ${(I-{A}^{l-k})}^{-1}$, we get $d({x}_{{i}_{k}},{x}_{n+1})=\theta $, and hence (5) holds by (9). The proof of our claim is complete.

*i.e.*, $\{{x}_{n}\}$ is a Cauchy sequence of

*X*. Therefore by the completeness of

*X*, there exists some ${x}^{\ast}\in X$ such that ${x}_{n}\stackrel{{\tau}_{d}}{\to}{x}^{\ast}$ ($n\to \mathrm{\infty}$),

*i.e.*,

where $u\in \{d({x}_{n},{x}^{\ast}),d({x}_{n},{x}_{n+1}),d({x}^{\ast},T{x}^{\ast}),d({x}_{n},T{x}^{\ast}),d({x}^{\ast},{x}_{n+1})\}$.

If $u=d({x}_{n},{x}^{\ast})$, or $u=d({x}_{n},{x}_{n+1})$, or $u=d({x}^{\ast},{x}_{n+1})$, then by (12), (13), (14), (H), and Lemma 1, we get $d(T{x}^{\ast},{x}^{\ast})=\theta $ and hence ${x}^{\ast}=T{x}^{\ast}$.

Acting (16) with ${(I-A)}^{-1}$, by ${(I-A)}^{-1}(P)\subset P$ we get $d(T{x}^{\ast},{x}^{\ast})=\theta $ and hence ${x}^{\ast}=T{x}^{\ast}$.

Thus it follows from (13) and (H) that (15) holds for each $\u03f5\in intP$. Consequently, we obtain (16). Acting (16) with ${(I-A)}^{-1}$, by ${(I-A)}^{-1}(P)\subset P$ we get $d(T{x}^{\ast},{x}^{\ast})=\theta $ and hence ${x}^{\ast}=T{x}^{\ast}$. This shows that ${x}^{\ast}$ is a fixed point of *T*.

*x*is another fixed point of

*T*, then by (1),

where $u\in \{d(x,{x}^{\ast}),d(x,Tx),d({x}^{\ast},T{x}^{\ast}),d(x,T{x}^{\ast}),d({x}^{\ast},Tx)\}$. If $u=d(x,Tx)$,or $u=d({x}^{\ast},T{x}^{\ast})$, then $u=\theta $, and hence $d(x,{x}^{\ast})=\theta $. If $u=d(x,{x}^{\ast})$, or $u=d(x,T{x}^{\ast})$ or $u=d({x}^{\ast},Tx)$, then we must have $u=d(x,{x}^{\ast})$, and hence $(I-A)d(x,{x}^{\ast})\u2aaf\theta $. Acting on it with ${(I-A)}^{-1}$, by ${(I-A)}^{-1}(P)\subset P$ we have $d(x,{x}^{\ast})=\theta $. This shows ${x}^{\ast}$ is the unique fixed point of *T*. The proof is complete. □

Following (i) of Remark 1 and the proof of Theorem 1, we have the following result.

**Corollary 1** (see [[4], Theorem 2.1])

*Let* $(X,d)$ *be a complete cone metric space over a solid cone* *P* *of a topological vector space* *E* *and* $T:X\to X$ *an Ilić*-*Rakočević’s quasi*-*contraction*. *Then* *T* *has a unique fixed point* ${x}^{\ast}\in X$ *such that for each* ${x}_{0}\in X$, ${x}_{n}\stackrel{{\tau}_{d}}{\to}{x}^{\ast}$, *where* ${x}_{n}={T}^{n}{x}_{0}$ *for all* *n*.

**Remark 2** (i) Theorem 2.1 of [2], Theorem 2.2 of [3], and Theorem 2.1 of [4] are special cases of Theorem 1 with $A=\lambda I$ for $\lambda \in (0,1)$.

*X*by Theorem 2.1 of [6]. If

*T*is a quasi-contraction with $\lambda \in (0,1)$, then applying Lemma 1.1 of [6], we have

- (iii)
If

*T*is a quasi-contraction restricted with a linear bounded mapping, one may not be sure that there exists some $\lambda \in (0,1)$ such that (17) is satisfied, and so Theorem 1 cannot be derived from Ćirić’s result. Therefore Theorem 1 indeed improves the corresponding result of [1–4]. - (iv)
Compared with Corollary 1 of [5], the mapping

*A*is no longer necessarily assumed to be contractive in Theorem 1.

**Remark 3** It is not hard to see from the proof of Theorem 1 that Theorem 1 remains valid in the setting of partial cone metric spaces.

**Remark 4** If *A* is a linear unbounded mapping, then $I-A$ may not be invertible and (3) is not satisfied, and hence the method used in Theorem 1 becomes invalid.

The following example shows the usability of Theorem 1.

**Example 2**Let

*E*and

*P*be the same ones as those in Example 1 and $X=P$. Define a mapping $d:X\times X\to P$ by

*A*satisfies (H). It is clear that

*i.e.*, (1) is satisfied. Since $({A}^{n}x)(t)\le \frac{{t}^{n}}{n!}{\parallel x\parallel}_{\mathrm{\infty}}$ for each $t\in [0,1]$, then ${\parallel {A}^{n}x\parallel}_{\mathrm{\infty}}\le \frac{1}{n!}{\parallel x\parallel}_{\mathrm{\infty}}$. Moreover, from ${({A}^{n}x)}^{\prime}(t)=({A}^{n-1}x)(t)$ we have

which implies that $\parallel {A}^{n}\parallel \le \frac{1}{n!}+\frac{1}{(n-1)!}$. By Gelfand’s formula, $r(A)={lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}\sqrt[n]{\parallel {A}^{n}\parallel}=0$ since ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}\frac{1}{\sqrt[n]{n!}}=0$. Thus all the assumptions of Theorem 1 are satisfied, and hence *T* has a unique fixed point. In fact, *θ* is the unique fixed point of *T*.

Note that if *T* is not an Ilić-Rakočević’s quasi-contraction and *A* is not a contractive linear bounded mapping (let $x(t)=cost$ for each $t\in [0,1]$, then $(Ax)(t)=sint\ge cost=x(t)$ for each $t\in [\frac{\pi}{4},1]$, and so $Ax\u22e0x$, which implies that $(I-A)(P)\not\subset P$), then the fixed point results of [2–5] are not applicable in this case.

## Declarations

### Acknowledgements

The work was supported by Natural Science Foundation of China (11161022), Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province (20114BAB211006, 20122BAB201015), Educational Department of Jiangxi Province (GJJ12280, GJJ13297) and Program for Excellent Youth Talents of JXUFE (201201). The authors express their gratitude to the referees for their helpful suggestions which improved the proof of Theorem 1.

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

- Ćirić LB: A generalization of Banach’s contraction principle.
*Proc. Am. Math. Soc.*1974, 45: 267–273.MATHGoogle Scholar - Ilić D, Rakočević V: Quasi-contraction on a cone metric space.
*Appl. Math. Lett.*2009, 22: 728–731. 10.1016/j.aml.2008.08.011View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Kadelburg Z, Radenović S, Rakočević V: Remarks on ‘Quasi-contraction on a cone metric space’.
*Appl. Math. Lett.*2009, 22: 1674–1679. 10.1016/j.aml.2009.06.003View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Rezapour S, Haghi RH, Shahzad N: Some notes on fixed points of quasi-contraction maps.
*Appl. Math. Lett.*2010, 23: 498–502. 10.1016/j.aml.2010.01.003View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Arandelović ID, Kečkić DJ: On nonlinear quasi-contractions on TVS-cone metric spaces.
*Appl. Math. Lett.*2011, 24: 1209–1213. 10.1016/j.aml.2011.02.010View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Du W: A note on cone metric fixed point theory and its equivalence.
*Nonlinear Anal.*2010, 72: 2259–2261. 10.1016/j.na.2009.10.026View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Jiang S, Li Z: Extensions of Banach contraction principle to partial cone metric spaces over a non-normal solid cone.
*Fixed Point Theory Appl.*2013., 2013: Article ID 250Google Scholar - Huang LG, Zhang X: Cone metric spaces and fixed point theorems of contractive mappings.
*J. Math. Anal. Appl.*2007, 332: 1468–1476. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2005.03.087View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Deimling K:
*Nonlinear Functional Analysis*. Springer, Berlin; 1985.View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar

## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.