- Open Access
On inclusion of F-contractions in -weak contractions
© Udo-utun; licensee Springer. 2014
- Received: 5 June 2013
- Accepted: 18 June 2013
- Published: 18 March 2014
We obtain a certain property of F-contractions, which enables us to generalize and extend Wardowski’s (Fixed Point Theory and Applications 2012:94, 2012) result and other fixed point theorems to the class of nonexpansive operators in real Banach spaces. We give illustrative examples to demonstrate nontrivial applicability of the property and use it to prove that F-contractions are closely related to -weak contractions introduced by Berinde (Carpath. J. Math. 19(1):7-22, 2003; Nonlinear Anal. Forum 9(1):43-53, 2004).
MSC:47H09, 47H10, 54H25.
- -weak contraction
- fixed points
- Kranoselskii iteration
- L-Lipschitzian maps
This work is concerned with contractive maps defined on real Banach spaces. Let be a metric space and let be a mapping such that there exists at least a constant with for all , then T is called L-Lipschitzian operator. T is called a contraction if and for , T is called a nonexpansive operator. T is called contractive if , while T is referred to as expansive if . A point is called a fixed point of an operator T if and the collection of all fixed points of an operator T is denoted by . The study of fixed points of contractive and expansive maps still attracts attention of numerous researchers studying extensions and generalizations of the Banach fixed point result. The famous Banach fixed point theorem, called contraction mapping principle, remains a basic result in fixed point theory because of the simplicity in the conditional requirements of the theorem on one hand and because of the simple nature of the Picard iteration scheme called successive approximations, which gives approximate fixed points with error estimates, on the other hand. The Banach contraction principle in a Banach space asserts that if is a contraction (i.e., for all , for some ), then T has a unique fixed point given by , where is any initial point in E. The contraction condition in a complete metric space is given by . There have been many generalizations and extensions of the Banach fixed point theorem, and the approaches used in these generalizations and extensions include (a) replacing the contraction constant L by a suitable function of to obtain contractive maps [1, 2]; (b) modifying on the with displacements of the forms and [3–6].
Recently, Wardowski  introduced a new type of contraction called F-contraction in his studies of contractive maps and proved a new fixed point theorem concerning F-contractions, for which the Banach contraction principle and some other known contractive conditions in the literature can be obtained as special cases.
Definition 1 
Let be a mapping satisfying:
F1. F is strictly increasing, i.e., for all such that , ;
F2. For each sequence of positive numbers if and only if .
F3. There exists such that .
for some and for all x and y in a certain subset of a closed convex and bounded subset of a Banach space where . Examples of F-contractions and some particular types of the function F, which yield various known contractive conditions, are given in  where it is also proved that F-contractions have unique fixed points given by the limit of the Picard successive approximation mentioned earlier. The main result proved by Wardowski in  is stated below.
Theorem 1.1 
Let be a complete metric space and let be an F-contraction. Then T has a unique fixed point and for every a sequence is convergent to .
Examples of contractive conditions making use of the displacements and is the class of -weak contractions introduced and used by Berinde  to obtain fixed point and uniqueness theorems for a large class of weakly Picard operators. We give the definition of weak contraction below.
Definition 2 
The purpose of this article is to prove that if is an F-contraction on a Banach space E, then T satisfies condition (2) which enables us to prove that T is a -weak contraction. In addition we prove as an extension that the averaging operator for a nonexpansive mapping T is an example of -weak contraction. It should be recalled that for . We give illustrative examples below to give an insight concerning property (2).
Example 1.1 Let E be real numbers ℝ, let be a closed interval and define by . Clearly, T is contractive since, by a mean value theorem, for some constant for each . This yields giving the desired result . But T does not satisfy condition (2) as shown below: For all , we have and, given any constant , we can find an open neighborhood of zero such that for some distinct . By our hypothesis, T may not have a fixed point in which is in concrete agreement with reality.
On the other hand, let X and K be, respectively, ℝ and , while is defined by . Similarly, T is contractive since, by a mean value theorem, . In this case, T satisfies our hypothesis and also has a fixed point, as shown below, in an appropriate open neighborhood of zero: for all , but we can find such that . We observe that since , for all x and y in an appropriate neighborhood of zero . It is remarkable that in agreement with our hypothesis, T has a unique fixed point . We shall prove in this work that this holds for all contractive maps, i.e., all contractive operators that satisfy condition (2) have unique fixed points, by proving that it is true for nonexpansive operators.
Other examples of -weak contractions are given in [4, 8]. It is shown in [3, 4] that a lot of well-known contractive conditions in literature are special cases of weak contraction condition (3) as it does not require that be less than 1, which is assumed in almost all fixed point theorems based on the contractive condition which involves displacements of the forms , , , , (see, for example, Berinde , Kannan  and Zamfirescu ). In  Berinde proved the theorem below.
For any , the Picard iteration given by , converges to some .
- (3)The estimates(4)
- (4)Under the additional condition that there exist and some such that(6)
the fixed point is unique and the Picard iteration converges at the rate , .
In the sequel we shall make use of the following result in connection with metric and normed linear spaces.
Proposition 1.1 Let Y be a subset of a complete metric space . Then is a metric space and is complete if and only if Y is closed in X.
We now present our main results. It should be mentioned here that in our extension of Wardowski result on F-contractions we no longer guarantee the uniqueness of fixed points. Our first result is concerned with the inclusion of F-contractions in -weak contractions, while the second result is an extension of the Wardowski result. First, we prove the following important and supporting lemma.
Lemma 2.1 Let V be a real normed linear space and let be any map. If , then for any distinct satisfying .
It is clear that in (7) implies , which is a contradiction; therefore . The end of the proof. □
- i.There exists an open subset such that T satisfies the following condition:
The F-contraction T is a -weak contraction.
The averaged operator is a -weak contraction and T and have a common unique fixed point in K for .
By Theorem 1.1, F-contractions have unique fixed points . In this case we can take to be the open ball centered at with radius r. Clearly, for a suitable value of r. In we have since F-contractions are contractive operators. We shall show that this contractive condition and boundedness of imply that F-contractions are -weak contractions. This follows from the fact that .
The proof of iii. is an application of Theorem 1.2 and Proposition 1.1. Recall that Proposition 1.1 asserts that is a complete metric space since E is a Banach space and K is a closed subset of E. It suffices to show that the averaging operator (for a contractive map T) is a -weak contraction on K; the existence of a fixed point in K follows via Theorem 1.2.
When , then (11) yields and we are done. It is easy to show, in derived above, that as . But in , when , then by (2) equation (11) yields . So, choosing such that , we conclude that is a -weak contraction with and , where λ satisfies . Therefore, by Theorem 1.2 T has a fixed point in K, and successive approximations for converge to a fixed point of T in K. The end of the proof. □
From the above method of the proof of Theorem 2.1, we obtain a fixed point theorem stated below for contractive mappings satisfying condition (2).
for all ; with , . Then the averaged operator is a -weak contraction and T has a fixed point in K.
The uniqueness of fixed points of nonexpansive maps (whenever they exist) is guaranteed if condition (6) in Theorem 1.2 is satisfied for a corresponding averaged operator .
Condition (2), Lemma 2.1 and Theorem 2.1 together with other properties of -weak contractions constitute the properties of F-contractions and the properties of nonexpansive operators with a nonempty fixed point set .
The bounded closed convex subset K can be replaced with a closed convex subset K, with emphasis on the boundedness of the open set .
The author is delighted to acknowledge the comments from the reviewers which have enhanced deeper insight. Also acknowledged is the support from the Springer Open editorial team for all their facilities and friendliness. Thank you all.
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