 Research
 Open Access
Approximating fixed points of multivalued ρnonexpansive mappings in modular function spaces
 Safeer Hussain Khan^{1}Email author and
 Mujahid Abbas^{2}
https://doi.org/10.1186/16871812201434
© Khan and Abbas; licensee Springer. 2014
 Received: 3 October 2013
 Accepted: 24 January 2014
 Published: 11 February 2014
Abstract
The existence of fixed points of singlevalued mappings in modular function spaces has been studied by many authors. The approximation of fixed points in such spaces via convergence of an iterative process for singlevalued mappings has also been attempted very recently by Dehaish and Kozlowski (Fixed Point Theory Appl. 2012:118, 2012). In this paper, we initiate the study of approximating fixed points by the convergence of a Mann iterative process applied on multivalued ρnonexpansive mappings in modular function spaces. Our results also generalize the corresponding results of (Dehaish and Kozlowski in Fixed Point Theory Appl. 2012:118, 2012) to the case of multivalued mappings.
MSC:47H09, 47H10, 54C60.
Keywords
 fixed point
 multivalued ρnonexpansive mapping
 iterative process
 modular function space
1 Introduction and preliminaries
The theory of modular spaces was initiated by Nakano [1] in connection with the theory of ordered spaces, which was further generalized by Musielak and Orlicz [2]. The fixed point theory for nonlinear mappings is an important subject of nonlinear functional analysis and is widely applied to nonlinear integral equations and differential equations. The study of this theory in the context of modular function spaces was initiated by Khamsi et al. [3] (see also [4–8]). Kumam [9] obtained some fixed point theorems for nonexpansive mappings in arbitrary modular spaces. Kozlowski [10] has contributed a lot towards the study of modular function spaces both on his own and with his collaborators. Of course, most of the work done on fixed points in these spaces was of existential nature. No results were obtained for the approximation of fixed points in modular function spaces until recently Dehaish and Kozlowski [11] tried to fill this gap using a Mann iterative process for asymptotically pointwise nonexpansive mappings.
All above work has been done for singlevalued mappings. On the other hand, the study of fixed points for multivalued contractions and nonexpansive mappings using the Hausdorff metric was initiated by Markin [12] (see also [13]). Later, an interesting and rich fixed point theory for such maps was developed which has applications in control theory, convex optimization, differential inclusion, and economics (see [14] and references cited therein). Moreover, the existence of fixed points for multivalued nonexpansive mappings in uniformly convex Banach spaces was proved by Lim [15]. The theory of multivalued nonexpansive mappings is harder than the corresponding theory of singlevalued nonexpansive mappings. Different iterative processes have been used to approximate the fixed points of multivalued nonexpansive mappings in Banach spaces.
Dhompongsa et al. [5] have proved that every ρcontraction $T:C\to {F}_{\rho}(C)$ has a fixed point where ρ is a convex function modular satisfying the socalled ${\mathrm{\Delta}}_{2}$type condition, C is a nonempty ρbounded ρclosed subset of ${L}_{\rho}$ and ${F}_{\rho}(C)$ a family of ρclosed subsets of C. By using this result, they asserted the existence of fixed points for multivalued ρnonexpansive mappings. Again their results are existential in nature. See also Kutbi and Latif [16].
In this paper, we approximate fixed points of ρnonexpansive multivalued mappings in modular function spaces using a Mann iterative process. We make the first ever effort to fill the gap between the existence and the approximation of fixed points of ρnonexpansive multivalued mappings in modular function spaces. In a way, the corresponding results of Dehaish and Kozlowski [11] are also generalized to the case of multivalued mappings.
Some basic facts and notation needed in this paper are recalled as follows.
Let Ω be a nonempty set and Σ a nontrivial σalgebra of subsets of Ω. Let $\mathcal{P}$ be a δring of subsets of Ω, such that $E\cap A\in \mathcal{P}$ for any $E\in \mathcal{P}$ and $A\in \mathrm{\Sigma}$. Let us assume that there exists an increasing sequence of sets ${K}_{n}\in \mathcal{P}$ such that $\mathrm{\Omega}=\bigcup {K}_{n}$ (for instance, $\mathcal{P}$ can be the class of sets of finite measure in a σfinite measure space). By ${1}_{A}$, we denote the characteristic function of the set A in Ω. By ℰ we denote the linear space of all simple functions with supports from $\mathcal{P}$. By ${\mathcal{M}}_{\mathrm{\infty}}$ we will denote the space of all extended measurable functions, i.e., all functions $f:\mathrm{\Omega}\to [\mathrm{\infty},\mathrm{\infty}]$ such that there exists a sequence $\{{g}_{n}\}\subset \mathcal{E}$, ${g}_{n}\le f$ and ${g}_{n}(\omega )\to f(\omega )$ for all $\omega \in \mathrm{\Omega}$.
 (1)
$\rho (0)=0$;
 (2)
ρ is monotone, i.e., $f(\omega )\le g(\omega )$ for any $\omega \in \mathrm{\Omega}$ implies $\rho (f)\le \rho (g)$, where $f,g\in {\mathcal{M}}_{\mathrm{\infty}}$;
 (3)
ρ is orthogonally subadditive, i.e., $\rho (f{1}_{A\cup B})\le \rho (f{1}_{A})+\rho (f{1}_{B})$ for any $A,B\in \mathrm{\Sigma}$ such that $A\cap B\ne \varphi $, $f\in {\mathcal{M}}_{\mathrm{\infty}}$;
 (4)
ρ has Fatou property, i.e., ${f}_{n}(\omega )\uparrow f(\omega )$ for all $\omega \in \mathrm{\Omega}$ implies $\rho ({f}_{n})\uparrow \rho (f)$, where $f\in {\mathcal{M}}_{\mathrm{\infty}}$;
 (5)
ρ is order continuous in ℰ, i.e., ${g}_{n}\in \mathcal{E}$, and ${g}_{n}(\omega )\downarrow 0$ implies $\rho ({g}_{n})\downarrow 0$.
where $f\in \mathcal{M}(\mathrm{\Omega},\mathrm{\Sigma},\mathcal{P},\rho )$ is actually an equivalence class of functions equal ρa.e. rather than an individual function. Where no confusion exists we will write ℳ instead of $\mathcal{M}(\mathrm{\Omega},\mathrm{\Sigma},\mathcal{P},\rho )$.
Definition 2 Let ρ be a regular function pseudomodular. We say that ρ is a regular convex function modular if $\rho (f)=0$ implies $f=0$ ρa.e.
 (1)
$\rho (0)=0$ iff $f=0$ ρa.e.
 (2)
$\rho (\alpha f)=\rho (f)$ for every scalar α with $\alpha =1$ and $f\in \mathcal{M}$.
 (3)
$\rho (\alpha f+\beta g)\le \rho (f)+\rho (g)$ if $\alpha +\beta =1$, $\alpha ,\beta \ge 0$ and $f,g\in \mathcal{M}$.
ρ is called a convex modular if, in addition, the following property is satisfied:
(3′) $\rho (\alpha f+\beta g)\le \alpha \rho (f)+\beta \rho (g)$ if $\alpha +\beta =1$, $\alpha ,\beta \ge 0$ and $f,g\in \mathcal{M}$.
defines a norm on the modular space ${L}_{\rho}$, and it is called the Luxemburg norm.
The following uniform convexity type properties of ρ can be found in [11].
and ${\delta}_{1}(r,\epsilon )=1$ if $D({r}_{1},\epsilon )=\varphi $.
As a conventional notation, ${\delta}_{1}={\delta}_{1}^{\frac{1}{2}}$.
Definition 5 A nonzero regular convex function modular ρ is said to satisfy $(UC1)$ if for every $r>0$, $\epsilon >0$, ${\delta}_{1}(r,\epsilon )>0$. Note that for every $r>0$, ${D}_{1}(r,\epsilon )\ne \varphi $ for $\epsilon >0$ small enough. ρ is said to satisfy $(UUC1)$ if for every $s\ge 0$, $\epsilon >0$, there exists ${\eta}_{1}(s,\epsilon )>0$ depending only upon s and ε such that ${\delta}_{1}(r,\epsilon )>{\eta}_{1}(s,\epsilon )>0$ for any $r>s$.
Definition 6 Let ${L}_{\rho}$ be a modular space. The sequence $\{{f}_{n}\}\subset {L}_{\rho}$ is called:

ρconvergent to $f\in {L}_{\rho}$ if $\rho ({f}_{n}f)\to 0$ as $n\to \mathrm{\infty}$;

ρCauchy, if $\rho ({f}_{n}{f}_{m})\to 0$ as n and $m\to \mathrm{\infty}$.
Definition 7 A subset $D\subset {L}_{\rho}$ is called:

ρclosed if the ρlimit of a ρconvergent sequence of D always belongs to D;

ρa.e. closed if the ρa.e. limit of a ρa.e. convergent sequence of D always belongs to D;

ρcompact if every sequence in D has a ρconvergent subsequence in D;

ρa.e. compact if every sequence in D has a ρa.e. convergent subsequence in D;

ρbounded if${diam}_{\rho}(D)=sup\{\rho (fg):f,g\in D\}<\mathrm{\infty}.$
A sequence $\{{t}_{n}\}\subset (0,1)$ is called bounded away from 0 if there exists $a>0$ such that ${t}_{n}\ge a$ for every $n\in \mathbb{N}$. Similarly, $\{{t}_{n}\}\subset (0,1)$ is called bounded away from 1 if there exists $b<1$ such that ${t}_{n}\le b$ for every $n\in \mathbb{N}$.
Lemma 1 (Lemma 3.2 [11])
then ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}\rho ({f}_{n}{g}_{n})=0$.
The above lemma is an analogue of a famous lemma due to Schu [18] in Banach spaces.
A function $f\in {L}_{\rho}$ is called a fixed point of $T:{L}_{\rho}\to {P}_{\rho}(D)$ if $f\in Tf$. The set of all fixed points of T will be denoted by ${F}_{\rho}(T)$.
 (1)
$f\in {F}_{\rho}(T)$, that is, $f\in Tf$.
 (2)
${P}_{\rho}^{T}(f)=\{f\}$, that is, $f=g$ for each $g\in {P}_{\rho}^{T}(f)$.
 (3)
$f\in F({P}_{\rho}^{T}(f))$, that is, $f\in {P}_{\rho}^{T}(f)$. Further ${F}_{\rho}(T)=F({P}_{\rho}^{T}(f))$ where $F({P}_{\rho}^{T}(f))$ denotes the set of fixed points of ${P}_{\rho}^{T}(f)$.
Proof $(1)\u27f9(2)$. Since $f\in {F}_{\rho}(T)\u27f9f\in Tf$, so ${dist}_{\rho}(f,Tf)=0$. Therefore, for any $g\in {P}_{\rho}^{T}(f)$, $\rho (fg)={dist}_{\rho}(f,Tf)=0$ implies that $\rho (fg)=0$. Hence $f=g$. That is, ${P}_{\rho}^{T}(f)=\{f\}$.
$(2)\u27f9(3)$. Obvious.
$(3)\u27f9(1)$. Since $f\in F({P}_{\rho}^{T}(f))$, so by definition of ${P}_{\rho}^{T}(f)$ we have ${dist}_{\rho}(f,Tf)=\rho (ff)=0$. Thus $f\in Tf$ by ρclosedness of Tf. □
Definition 8 A multivalued mapping $T:D\to {C}_{\rho}(D)$ is said to satisfy condition (I) if there exists a nondecreasing function $l:[0,\mathrm{\infty})\to [0,\mathrm{\infty})$ with $l(0)=0$, $l(r)>0$ for all $r\in (0,\mathrm{\infty})$ such that ${dist}_{\rho}(f,Tf)\ge l({dist}_{\rho}(f,{F}_{\rho}(T)))$ for all $f\in D$.
It is a multivalued version of condition (I) of Senter and Dotson [19] in the framework of modular function spaces.
2 Main results
We prove a key result giving a major support to our ρconvergence result for approximating fixed points of multivalued ρnonexpansive mappings in modular function spaces using a Mann iterative process.
Hence ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}\rho ({f}_{n}c)$ exists for each $c\in {F}_{\rho}(T)$.
where $L\ge 0$.
□
Now we are all set for our convergence result for approximating fixed points of multivalued ρnonexpansive mappings in modular function spaces using the Mann iterative process as follows.
Theorem 2 Let ρ satisfy $(UUC1)$ and D a nonempty ρcompact, ρbounded and convex subset of ${L}_{\rho}$. Let $T:D\to {P}_{\rho}(D)$ be a multivalued mapping such that ${P}_{\rho}^{T}$ is ρnonexpansive mapping. Suppose that ${F}_{\rho}(T)\ne \varphi $. Let $\{{f}_{n}\}$ be as defined in Theorem 1. Then $\{{f}_{n}\}$ ρconverges to a fixed point of T.
By Theorem 1, we have ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{dist}_{\rho}({f}_{n},{P}_{\rho}^{T}({f}_{n}))=0$. This gives $\rho (\frac{qg}{3})=0$. Hence q is a fixed point of ${P}_{\rho}^{T}$. Since the set of fixed points of ${P}_{\rho}^{T}$ is the same as that of T by Lemma 2, $\{{f}_{n}\}$ ρconverges to a fixed point of T. □
Theorem 3 Let ρ satisfy $(UUC1)$ and D a nonempty ρclosed, ρbounded and convex subset of ${L}_{\rho}$. Let $T:D\to {P}_{\rho}(D)$ be a multivalued mapping with and ${F}_{\rho}(T)\ne \varphi $ and satisfying condition (I) such that ${P}_{\rho}^{T}$ is ρnonexpansive mapping. Let $\{{f}_{n}\}$ be as defined in Theorem 1. Then $\{{f}_{n}\}$ ρconverges to a fixed point of T.
Since l is a nondecreasing function and $l(0)=0$, it follows that ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{dist}_{\rho}({f}_{n},{F}_{\rho}(T))=0$.
Hence $\{{f}_{n}\}$ is a ρCauchy sequence in a ρclosed subset D of ${L}_{\rho}$, and so it must converge in D. Let ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{f}_{n}=q$. That q is a fixed point of T now follows from Theorem 2. □
We now give some examples. The first one shows the existence of a mapping satisfying the condition (I) whereas the second one shows the existence of a mapping satisfying all the conditions of Theorem 3.
Define a continuous and nondecreasing function $l:[0,\mathrm{\infty})\to [0,\mathrm{\infty})$ by $l(r)=\frac{r}{2}$. It is obvious that ${dist}_{\rho}(f,Tf)\ge l({dist}_{\rho}(f,{F}_{T}))$ for all $f\in D$. Hence T satisfies the condition (I).
Define a continuous and nondecreasing function $l:[0,\mathrm{\infty})\to [0,\mathrm{\infty})$ by $l(r)=\frac{r}{4}$. It is obvious that ${dist}_{\rho}(f,Tf)\ge l({dist}_{\rho}(f,{F}_{T}))$ for all $f\in D$.
Note that ${P}_{\rho}^{T}(f)=\{f\}$ when $f\in D$. Hence ${P}_{\rho}^{T}$ is nonexpansive. Moreover, by Lemma 2, ${P}_{\rho}^{T}(f)=\{f\}\u27f9f\in Tf$ for all $f\in D$. Thus $\{{f}_{n}\}\subset D$ defined by ${f}_{n+1}=(1{\alpha}_{n}){f}_{n}+{\alpha}_{n}{u}_{n}$ where ${u}_{n}\in {P}_{\rho}^{T}({f}_{n})$ ρconverges to a fixed point of T.
Declarations
Acknowledgements
The first author owes a lot to Professor Wataru Takahashi from whom he started learning the very alphabets of Fixed Point Theory during his doctorate at Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan. He is extremely indebted to Professor Takahashi and wishes him a long healthy active life. The authors are thankful to the anonymous referees for giving valuable comments.
Authors’ Affiliations
References
 Nakano H: Modular SemiOrdered Spaces. Maruzen, Tokyo; 1950.MATHGoogle Scholar
 Musielak J, Orlicz W: On modular spaces. Stud. Math. 1959, 18: 591–597.Google Scholar
 Khamsi MA, Kozlowski WM, Reich S: Fixed point theory in modular function spaces. Nonlinear Anal. 1990, 14: 935–953. 10.1016/0362546X(90)90111SView ArticleMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
 Khamsi MA: A convexity property in modular function spaces. Math. Jpn. 1996, 44: 269–279.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
 Dhompongsa S, Benavides TD, Kaewcharoen A, Panyanak B: Fixed point theorems for multivalued mappings in modular function spaces. Sci. Math. Jpn. 2006, e2006: 139–147.Google Scholar
 Benavides TD, Khamsi MA, Samadi S: Asymptotically nonexpansive mappings in modular function spaces. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 2002, 265: 249–263. 10.1006/jmaa.2000.7275View ArticleMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
 Benavides TD, Khamsi MA, Samadi S: Asymptotically regular mappings in modular function spaces. Sci. Math. Jpn. 2001, 53: 295–304.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
 Benavides TD, Khamsi MA, Samadi S: Uniformly Lipschitzian mappings in modular function spaces. Nonlinear Anal. 2001, 46: 267–278. 10.1016/S0362546X(00)001176View ArticleMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
 Kumam P: Fixed point theorem for nonexpansive mappings in modular spaces. Arch. Math. 2004, 40: 345–353.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
 Kozlowski WM: Modular Function Spaces. Dekker, New York; 1988.MATHGoogle Scholar
 Dehaish BAB, Kozlowski WM: Fixed point iteration for asymptotic pointwise nonexpansive mappings in modular function spaces. Fixed Point Theory Appl. 2012., 2012: Article ID 118Google Scholar
 Markin JT: Continuous dependence of fixed point sets. Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 1973, 38: 545–547. 10.1090/S00029939197303138974View ArticleMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
 Nadler SB Jr.: Multivalued contraction mappings. Pac. J. Math. 1969, 30: 475–488. 10.2140/pjm.1969.30.475View ArticleMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
 Gorniewicz L: Topological Fixed Point Theory of Multivalued Mappings. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht; 1999.View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
 Lim TC: A fixed point theorem for multivalued nonexpansive mappings in a uniformly convex Banach spaces. Bull. Am. Math. Soc. 1974, 80: 1123–1126. 10.1090/S000299041974136402View ArticleGoogle Scholar
 Kutbi MA, Latif A: Fixed points of multivalued mappings in modular function spaces. Fixed Point Theory Appl. 2009., 2009: Article ID 786357Google Scholar
 Kilmer SJ, Kozlowski WM, Lewicki G:Sigma order continuity and best approximation in ${L}_{\rho}$spaces. Comment. Math. Univ. Carol. 1991, 3: 2241–2250.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
 Schu J: Weak and strong convergence to fixed points of asymptotically nonexpansive mappings. Bull. Aust. Math. Soc. 1991, 43: 153–159. 10.1017/S0004972700028884View ArticleMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
 Senter HF, Dotson WG: Approximating fixed points of nonexpansive mappings. Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 1974, 44(2):375–380. 10.1090/S00029939197403466088View ArticleMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
Copyright
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.