# A note on common fixed points for $(\psi ,\alpha ,\beta )$-weakly contractive mappings in generalized metric spaces

- Nurcan Bilgili
^{1, 2}Email author, - Erdal Karapınar
^{3}and - Duran Turkoglu
^{1, 2}

**2013**:287

https://doi.org/10.1186/1687-1812-2013-287

© Bilgili et al.; licensee Springer. 2013

**Received: **20 May 2013

**Accepted: **18 September 2013

**Published: **8 November 2013

## Abstract

Very recently, Isik and Turkoglu (Fixed Point Theory Appl. 2013:131, 2013) proved a common fixed point theorem in a rectangular metric space by using three auxiliary distance functions. In this paper, we note that this result can be derived from the recent paper of Lakzian and Samet (Appl. Math. Lett. 25:902-906, 2012).

**MSC:**47H10, 54H25.

### Keywords

fixed point partial metric space GP-metric space## 1 Introduction and preliminaries

In 2012, Lakzian and Samet [1] proved a fixed point theorem of a self-mapping with certain conditions in the context of a rectangular metric space via two auxiliary functions. Very recently, as a generalization of the main result of [1], Isik and Turkoglu [2] reported a common fixed point result of two self-mappings in the setting of a rectangular metric space by using three auxiliary functions. In this paper, unexpectedly, we conclude that the main result of Isik and Turkoglu [2] is a consequence of the main results of [1]. The obtained results are inspired by the techniques and ideas of, *e.g.*, [3–11].

Throughout the paper, we follow the notations used in [2]. For the sake of completeness, we recall some basic definitions, notations and results.

**Definition 1.1**Let

*X*be a nonempty set, and let $d:X\times X\to [0,\mathrm{\infty})$ satisfy the following conditions for all $x,y\in X$ and all distinct $u,v\in X$, each of which is different from

*x*and

*y*:

- (RM1)
$d(x,y)=0$ if and only if $x=y$,

- (RM2)
$d(x,y)=d(y,x)$,

- (RM3)
$d(x,y)\le d(x,u)+d(u,v)+d(v,y)$.

Then the map *d* is called a rectangular metric and the pair $(X,d)$ is called a rectangular metric space (or, for short, *RMS*).

We note that a rectangular metric space is also known as a generalized metric space (g.m.s.) in some sources.

We first recall the definitions of the following auxiliary functions: Let ℱ be the set of functions $\xi :[0,\mathrm{\infty})\to [0,\mathrm{\infty})$ satisfying the condition $\xi (t)=0$ if and only if $t=0$. We denote by Ψ the set of functions $\psi \in \mathcal{F}$ such that *ψ* is continuous and nondecreasing. We reserve Φ for the set of functions $\alpha \in \mathcal{F}$ such that *α* is continuous. Finally, by Γ we denote the set of functions $\beta \in \mathcal{F}$ satisfying the following condition: *β* is lower semi-continuous.

Lakzian and Samet [1] proved the following fixed point theorem.

**Theorem 1.1** [1]

*Let*$(X,d)$

*be a Hausdorff and complete*

*RMS*,

*and let*$T:X\to X$

*be a self*-

*map satisfying*

*for all* $x,y\in X$, *where* $\psi \in \mathrm{\Psi}$ *and* $\varphi \in \mathrm{\Phi}$. *Then* *T* *has a unique fixed point in* *X*.

**Lemma 1.1** [3]

*Let* *X* *be a nonempty set and* $T:X\to X$ *be a function*. *Then there exists a subset* $E\subseteq X$ *such that* $T(E)=T(X)$ *and* $T:E\to X$ *is one*-*to*-*one*.

**Definition 1.2** Let *X* be a nonempty set, and let $T,F:X\to X$ be self-mappings. The mappings are said to be weakly compatible if they commute at their coincidence points, that is, if $Tx=Fx$ for some $x\in X$ implies that $TFx=FTx$.

**Theorem 1.2** [2]

*Let*$(X,d)$

*be a Hausdorff and complete*

*RMS*,

*and let*$T,F:X\to X$

*be self*-

*mappings such that*$T(X)\subseteq F(X)$,

*and*$F(X)$

*is a closed subspace of*

*X*,

*and that the following condition holds*:

*for all*$x,y\in X$,

*where*$\psi \in \mathrm{\Psi}$, $\alpha \in \mathrm{\Phi}$, $\beta \in \mathrm{\Gamma}$,

*and these mappings satisfy the condition*

*Then* *T* *and* *F* *have a unique coincidence point in* *X*. *Moreover*, *if* *T* *and* *F* *are weakly compatible*, *then* *T* *and* *F* *have a unique common fixed point*.

**Remark 1.1** Let $(X,d)$ be *RMS*. Then *d* is continuous (see, *e.g.*, Proposition 2 in [5]).

## 2 Main results

We start this section with the following theorem which is a slightly improved version of Theorem 1.1, obtained by replacing the continuity condition of *ϕ* with a lower semi-continuity.

**Theorem 2.1**

*Let*$(X,d)$

*be a Hausdorff and complete*

*RMS*,

*and let*$T:X\to X$

*be a self*-

*map satisfying*

*for all* $x,y\in X$, *where* $\psi \in \mathrm{\Psi}$ *and* $\varphi \in \mathrm{\Gamma}$. *Then* *T* *has a unique fixed point in* *X*.

*Proof*Let ${x}_{0}\in X$ and ${x}_{n+1}=T{x}_{n}$ for $n=0,1,2,\dots $ . Following the lines of the proof of Theorem 1.1 in [1], we conclude that there exists $r\ge 0$ such that

by replacing $x={x}_{n-1}$ and $y={x}_{n}$ in inequality (4).

*ψ*and lower semi-continuity of

*ϕ*, thus, we get

which implies that $\varphi (r)=0$ and then $r=0$. Consequently, we have $d({x}_{n},{x}_{n+1})\to 0$ as $n\to \mathrm{\infty}$.

*ψ*, it follows that $\{d({x}_{n},{x}_{n+2})\}$ is monotone decreasing. Thus, there exists $s\ge 0$ such that

*ψ*and lower semi-continuity of

*ϕ*, we find

which implies that $\varphi (s)=0$. So, we conclude that $s=0$ and hence $d({x}_{n},{x}_{n+2})\to 0$ as $n\to \mathrm{\infty}$.

As in Theorem 1.1 in [1], we notice that *T* has no periodic point.

*ψ*and lower semi-continuity of

*ϕ*, we get

which implies that $\varphi (\epsilon )=0$ and then $\epsilon =0$, a contradiction with $\epsilon >0$. Hence, $\{{x}_{n}\}$ is a Cauchy sequence. The rest of the proof is the mimic of the proof of Theorem 1.1 in [1] and hence we omit the details. □

Inspired by Theorem 1.2, one can state the following theorem.

**Theorem 2.2**

*Let*$(X,d)$

*be a Hausdorff and complete*

*RMS*,

*and let*$T:X\to X$

*be self*-

*mappings such that*

*for all*$x,y\in X$,

*where*$\psi \in \mathrm{\Psi}$, $\alpha \in \mathrm{\Phi}$, $\beta \in \mathrm{\Gamma}$

*and these mappings satisfy the condition*

*Then* *T* *has a unique fixed point in* *X*.

Since the proof is the mimic of the proof of Theorem 1.2, we omit it.

We first prove that the above theorem is equivalent to Theorem 2.1.

**Theorem 2.3** *Theorem * 2.2 *is a consequence of Theorem * 2.1.

*Proof*Taking $\alpha =\psi $ in Theorem 2.2, we obtain immediately Theorem 2.1. Now, we shall prove that Theorem 2.2 can be deduced from Theorem 2.1. Indeed, let $T:X\to X$ be a mapping satisfying (18) with $\psi \in \mathrm{\Psi}$, $\alpha \in \mathrm{\Phi}$, $\beta \in \mathrm{\Gamma}$, and let these mappings satisfy condition (19). From (18), for all $x,y\in X$, we have

for all $x,y\in X$. Due to the definition of *θ*, we observe that $\theta \in \mathrm{\Gamma}$. Now, Theorem 2.2 follows immediately from Theorem 2.1. □

By regarding the techniques in [3], we conclude the following result.

**Theorem 2.4** *Theorem * 1.2 *is a consequence of Theorem * 2.2.

*Proof* By Lemma 1.1, there exists $E\subseteq X$ such that $F(E)=F(X)$ and $F:E\to X$ is one-to-one. Now, define a map $h:F(E)\to F(E)$ by $h(Fx)=Tx$. Since *F* is one-to-one on *E*, *h* is well defined. Note that $\psi (d(h(Fx),h(Fy)))\le \alpha (d(Fx,Fy))-\beta (d(Fx,Fy))$ for all $Fx,Fy\in F(E)$. Since $F(E)=F(X)$ is complete, by using Theorem 2.2, there exists ${x}_{0}\in X$ such that $h(F{x}_{0})=F{x}_{0}$. Hence, *T* and *F* have a point of coincidence, which is also unique. It is clear that *T* and *F* have a unique common fixed point whenever *T* and *F* are weakly compatible. □

**Theorem 2.5** *Theorem* 1.2 *is a consequence of Theorem* 2.1.

*Proof* It is evident from Theorem 2.3 and Theorem 2.4. □

## 3 Conclusion

In this paper, we first slightly improve the main result of Lakzian and Samet, Theorem 1.1. Then, we conclude that the main result (Theorem 1.2) of Isik-Turkoglu [2] is a consequence of our improved result, Theorem 2.1.

## Declarations

### Acknowledgements

The authors thank anonymous referees for their remarkable comments, suggestions and ideas that helped to improve this paper.

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

- Lakzian H, Samet B:Fixed points $(\psi ,\phi )$-weakly contractive mappings in generalized metric spaces.
*Appl. Math. Lett.*2012, 25: 902–906. 10.1016/j.aml.2011.10.047MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Isik H, Turkoglu D:Common fixed points for $(\psi ,\alpha ,\beta )$-weakly contractive mappings in generalized metric spaces.
*Fixed Point Theory Appl.*2013., 2013: Article ID 131Google Scholar - Haghi RH, Rezapour S, Shahzad N: Some fixed point generalizations are not real generalizations.
*Nonlinear Anal.*2011, 74: 1799–1803. 10.1016/j.na.2010.10.052MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Aydi H, Karapınar E, Samet B: Remarks on some recent fixed point theorems.
*Fixed Point Theory Appl.*2012., 2012: Article ID 76Google Scholar - Kirk WA, Shahzad N: Generalized metrics and Caristi’s theorem.
*Fixed Point Theory Appl.*2013., 2013: Article ID 129Google Scholar - Arshad M, Ahmad J, Karapınar E: Some common fixed point results in rectangular metric spaces.
*Int. J. Anal.*2013., 2013: Article ID 307234Google Scholar - Sarma IJ, Rao JM, Rao SS: Contractions over generalized metric spaces.
*J. Nonlinear Sci. Appl.*2009, 2(3):180–182.MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar - Arshad M, Ahmad J, Vetro C: On a theorem of Khan in a generalized metric space.
*Int. J. Anal.*2013., 2013: Article ID 852727Google Scholar - Chen C-M, Sun WY:Periodic points and fixed points for the weaker $(\varphi ,\phi )$-contractive mappings in complete generalized metric spaces.
*J. Appl. Math.*2012., 2012: Article ID 856974Google Scholar - Chen C-M: Common fixed point theorems in complete generalized metric spaces.
*J. Appl. Math.*2012., 2012: Article ID 945915Google Scholar - Di Bari C, Vetro P: Common fixed points in generalized metric spaces.
*Appl. Math. Comput.*2012. 10.1016/j.amc.2012.01.010Google Scholar

## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.