Weak compactness and the Eisenfeld-Lakshmikantham measure of nonconvexity
- Isabel Marrero^{1}Email author
https://doi.org/10.1186/1687-1812-2012-5
© Marrero; licensee Springer. 2012
Received: 20 September 2011
Accepted: 16 January 2012
Published: 16 January 2012
Abstract
In this article, weakly compact subsets of real Banach spaces are characterized in terms of the Cantor property for the Eisenfeld-Lakshmikantham measure of nonconvexity. This characterization is applied to prove the existence of fixed points for condensing maps, nonexpansive maps, and isometries without convexity requirements on their domain.
Mathematics Subject Classification 2010: Primary 47H10; Secondary 46B20, 47H08, 47H09.
Keywords
1. Introduction
Throughout this article, (X, ∥ · ∥) will denote a real Banach space.
where$\overline{\text{co}}A$denotes the closed and convex hull of A and H(C, D) is the Hausdorff-Pompeiu distance between the bounded subsets C and D of X.
- (i)
μ(A) = 0 if, and only if, $\overline{A}$ is convex.
- (ii)
μ(λA) = |λ|μ(A) (λ ∈ ℝ).
- (iii)
μ(A + B) ≤ μ(A)+μ(B).
- (iv)
|μ (A) - μ(B)| ≤ μ (A - B).
- (v)
$\mu \left(\overline{A}\right)=\mu \left(A\right)$.
- (vi)μ(A) ≤ δ(A), where$\delta \left(A\right)=\underset{x,y\in A}{\text{sup}}\u2225x-y\u2225$
- (vii)
|μ(A) - μ(B)| ≤ 2H(A, B).
The following result was obtained in [2].
where μ is the E-L measure of nonconvexity of X, and let${A}_{\infty}={\bigcap}_{n=1}^{\infty}{A}_{n}$. Then${A}_{\infty}={\bigcap}_{n=1}^{\infty}\overline{\text{co}}{A}_{n}$.
Definition 1.3. Let Y be a nonempty and closed subset of the Banach space X. The E-L measure of nonconvexity μ of X is said to have the Cantor property in Y if for every decreasing sequence${\left\{{A}_{n}\right\}}_{n=1}^{\infty}$of nonempty, closed, and bounded subsets of Y such that$\underset{n\to \infty}{\text{lim}}\mu \left({A}_{n}\right)=0$, the closed and bounded (and, by Lemma 1.2, convex) set${A}_{\infty}={\bigcap}_{n=1}^{\infty}{A}_{n}$is nonempty.
- (i)
X is reflexive.
- (ii)
The E-L measure of nonconvexity of X satisfies the Cantor property in X.
In Section 2 below we prove a result (Theorem 2.1), more general than Theorem 1.4, which characterizes weak compactness also in terms of the Cantor property for the E-L measure of nonconvexity. As an application of this characterization, we show that the convexity requirements can be dropped from the hypotheses of a number of fixed point theorems in [3–5] for condensing maps (see Section 3.1), nonexpansive maps (see Section 3.2) and isometries (see Section 4).
2. A characterization of weak compactness
- (i)
C is weakly compact.
- (ii)
The measure μ satisfies the Cantor property in $\overline{\text{co}}C$.
- (iii)
For every decreasing sequence ${\left\{{A}_{n}\right\}}_{n=1}^{\infty}$ of nonempty and closed subsets of $\overline{\text{co}}C$ such that $\underset{n\to \infty}{\text{lim}}\mu \left({A}_{n}\right)=0$, the set ${A}_{\infty}={\bigcap}_{n=1}^{\infty}{A}_{n}$ is nonempty.
Proof. Part (iii) is just a rephrasement of part (ii).
Suppose (i) holds. By the Krein-Šmulian theorem [6, Theorem V.6.4], $\overline{\text{co}}C$ is weakly compact. Let ${\left\{{A}_{n}\right\}}_{n=1}^{\infty}$ be a decreasing sequence of nonempty and closed subsets of $\overline{\text{co}}C$ with lim_{n→∞}μ(A_{ n }) = 0. By Lemma 1.2, ${A}_{\infty}={\bigcap}_{n=1}^{\infty}\overline{\text{co}}{A}_{n}$, where ${\left\{\overline{\text{co}}{A}_{n}\right\}}_{n=1}^{\infty}$ is a decreasing sequence of nonempty closed, and convex subsets of the weakly compact and convex set $\overline{\text{co}}C$. The Šmulian theorem [6, Theorem V.6.2] then allows us to conclude that A_{∞} is nonempty.
Conversely, assume (iii). If we take any decreasing sequence ${\left\{{C}_{n}\right\}}_{n=1}^{\infty}$ of nonempty, closed, and convex subsets of the bounded and convex set $\overline{\text{co}}C$, then μ(C_{ n }) = 0 (n ∈ ℕ), and therefore ${C}_{\infty}\ne \varnothing $. Appealing again to the Šmulian theorem [6, Theorem V.6.2] we find that the convex set $\overline{\text{co}}C$ is weakly compact. Finally, being a weakly closed subset of $\overline{\text{co}}C$, the set C itself is weakly compact.
Note that Theorem 1.4 can be easily derived from Theorem 2.1. For the sake of completeness, we give a proof of this fact.
- (i)
X is reflexive.
- (ii)
The closed unit ball B _{ X } of X is weakly compact.
- (iii)
For every decreasing sequence ${\left\{{A}_{n}\right\}}_{n=1}^{\infty}$ of nonempty and closed subsets of B _{ X } such that lim_{n→∞} μ(A _{ n }) = 0, the set ${A}_{\infty}={\bigcap}_{n=1}^{\infty}{A}_{n}$ is nonempty and convex.
- (iv)
The measure μ satisfies the Cantor property in X.
Therefore ${A}_{\infty}={\lambda}^{-1}{B}_{\infty}\ne \varnothing $, as asserted. Finally, it is apparent that (iv) implies (iii).
3. Fixed points for condensing and nonexpansive maps
Proposition 3.2. Let Y be a nonempty and weakly compact subset of a Banach space X, and let f : Y → Y be a map with property (C). Then Y contains a nonempty, closed, and convex (hence, weakly compact) set K such that f(K) ⊂ K.
Theorem 2.1 yields that $K={Y}_{\infty}={\bigcap}_{n=1}^{\infty}{Y}_{n}$ is nonempty, closed, and convex. Clearly, f(K) ⊂ K. Closed convex sets are weakly closed [6, Theorem V.3.18] and therefore K is weakly compact, as claimed.
As an application of Proposition 3.2, some fixed point theorems for condensing and nonexpansive maps will be proved.
3.1. Condensing maps
for every B ⊂ Y with f(B) ⊂ B and γ(B) > 0.
The following result is an extension of [3, Theorem 4]. It can be also viewed as a version of Sadovskii's theorem [8].
Theorem 3.4. Let γ be a measure of noncompactness in a Banach space X and let Y be a nonempty and closed subset of X such that$\overline{co}Y$is weakly compact. Assume that the map f:Y →Y is continuous, γ-condensing and has property (C). Then f has at least one fixed point in Y.
Proof. Arguing as in the proof of Proposition 3.2 we get a nonempty, closed, and convex set K ⊂ Y such that f(K) ⊂ K. The required conclusion follows from [7, Corollary 3.5].
3.2. Nonexpansive maps
Definition 3.5. Let A ⊂ X be bounded. A point x ∈ A is a diametral point of A provided that sup_{y∈A}∥x - y∥ = δ(A). The set A is said to have normal structure if for each convex subset B of A containing more than one point, there exists some x ∈ B which is not a diametral point of B.
The following is a version of Kirk's seminal theorem (cf. [4, Theorem 4.1]) which does not require the convexity of the domain.
then f has a fixed point.
Proof. The asserted conclusion can be derived from Proposition 3.2 and [4, Theorem 4.1].
4. Fixed points for isometries
Definition 4.1. Let Y be a nonempty and weakly compact subset of a Banach space X. We say that Y has the fixed point property, FPP for short, if every isometry f:Y → Y has a fixed point. The set Y is said to have the hereditary FPP if every nonempty, closed, and convex subset of Y has the FPP.
We say that Y has property (S) provided that lim_{n→∞}μ(Ỹ_{ n }) = 0, where μ is the E-L measure of nonconvexity in X.
Lemma 4.3. Let Y be a nonempty and weakly compact subset of a Banach space X. If Y has property (S), then Ỹ is nonempty, closed, and convex.
is nonempty closed, and convex.
Theorem 4.4. Let Y be a nonempty and weakly compact subset of a Banach space X. Assume further that Y has both property (S) and the hereditary FPP. Then every isometry f:Y → Y such that f(Ỹ) ⊂ Ỹ has a fixed point in Ỹ.
Proof. From Lemma 4.3, Ỹ is nonempty, closed, and convex. It suffices to invoke the hereditary FPP of Y.
We say that f has property (A) provided that lim_{n→∞}μ(Ŷ_{ f,n }) = 0, where μ is the E-L measure of nonconvexity in X.
Lemma 4.6. Let Y be a nonempty and weakly compact subset of a Banach space X, and let f:Y → Y be an isometry with property (A). Then Ŷ_{ f }is nonempty, closed, and convex.
is nonempty closed, and convex.
Lemma 4.7. Let Y be a nonempty and weakly compact subset of a Banach space X, and let f : Y → Y be an isometry. Assume c ∈ Ŷ_{ f }is such that f(c) = c. then c ∈Ỹ.
which proves that c ∈ Ỹ.
Theorem 4.8. Let Y be a nonempty and weakly compact subset of a Banach space X. Suppose Y has the hereditary FPP. Then every isometry f:Y → Y with property (A) has a fixed point in Ỹ.
Proof. Let f : Y → Y be an isometry with property (A). From Lemma 4.6, Ŷ_{ f } is nonempty, closed, and convex. Moreover, f(Ŷ_{ f }) ⊂ Ŷ_{ f } (cf. [5, Proposition 3]). The hereditary FPP of Y then yields c ∈ Ŷ_{ f }such that f(c) = c, and Lemma 4.7 ensures that c ∈ Ỹ.
Corollary 4.9 ([5, Theorem 2]). Let Y be a nonempty, weakly compact, and convex subset of a Banach space X. Suppose Y has the hereditary FPP. Then every isometry f:Y → Y has a fixed point in Ỹ.
Proof. Since Y is convex, every isometry f : Y → Y has property (A). Theorem 4.8 completes the proof.
The following is an extension of Kirk's theorem [4, Theorem 4.1] for isometries.
Theorem 4.10. Let Y be a nonempty and weakly compact subset of a Banach space X. Assume further that Y has normal structure. Then every isometry f:Y → Y with property (A) has a fixed point in Ỹ.
Proof. Let f : Y → Y be an isometry with property (A). From Lemma 4.6, Ŷ_{ f } is nonempty, closed, and convex. Moreover, f(Ŷ_{ f }) ⊂ Ŷ_{ f } (cf. [5, Proposition 3]). Kirk's theorem [4, Theorem 4.1] along with Lemma 4.7 yield c ∈ Ỹ such that f(c) = c.
Corollary 4.11 ([5, Corollary 1]). Let Y be a nonempty, weakly compact, and convex subset of a Banach space X. Assume further that Y has normal structure. Then every isometry f:Y → Y has a fixed point in Ỹ.
Proof. The convexity of Y guarantees that every isometry f : Y → Y satisfies property (A). The desired conclusion follows from Theorem 4.10.
Declarations
Acknowledgements
This study was partially supported by the following grants: ULL-MGC 10/1445 and 11/1352, MEC-FEDER MTM2007-68114, and MICINN-FEDER MTM2010-17951 (Spain).
Authors’ Affiliations
References
- Eisenfeld J, Lakshmikantham V: On a measure of nonconvexity and applications. Yokohama Math J 1976, 24: 133–140.MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Marrero I: A note on reflexivity and nonconvexity. Nonlinear Anal 2011, 74: 6890–6894. 10.1016/j.na.2011.07.011MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bae JS: Fixed points of noncompact and nonconvex sets. Bull Korean Math Soc 1984, 21(2):87–89.MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Goebel K, Kirk W: Topics in metric fixed point theory. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; 1990.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lim T-C, Lin P-K, Petalas C, Vidalis T: Fixed points of isometries on weakly compact convex sets. J Math Anal Appl 2003, 282: 1–7. 10.1016/S0022-247X(03)00398-6MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dunford N, Schwartz J: Linear Operators. Part I: General theory. Interscience Publishers, New York; 1957.Google Scholar
- Petryshyn W, Fitzpatrick P: A degree theory, fixed point theorems and mapping theorems for multivalued noncompact mappings. Trans Amer Math Soc 1974, 194: 1–25.MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sadovskii B: A fixed-point principle. Funct Anal Appl 1967, 1(2):151–153.MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
Copyright
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.