 Research
 Open Access
 Published:
Simple projection algorithm for a countable family of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings and applications
Fixed Point Theory and Applications volume 2012, Article number: 205 (2012)
Abstract
Let E be a uniformly convex and uniformly smooth Banach space, let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of E, let $\{{T}_{n}\}:C\to C$ be a countable family of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings such that $F={\bigcap}_{n=1}^{\mathrm{\infty}}F({T}_{n})\ne \mathrm{\varnothing}$. For any given gauss ${x}_{0}\in C$, define a sequence $\{{x}_{n}\}$ in C by the following algorithm:
Then $\{{x}_{n}\}$ converges strongly to $q={\mathrm{\Pi}}_{F}{x}_{0}$.
MSC:47H05, 47H09, 47H10.
1 Introduction
Let E be a real Banach space with the dual ${E}^{\ast}$. We denote by J the normalized duality mapping from E to ${2}^{{E}^{\ast}}$ defined by
where $\u3008\cdot ,\cdot \u3009$ denotes the generalized duality pairing. The duality mapping J has the following properties: (1) if E is smooth, then J is singlevalued; (2) if E is strictly convex, then J is onetoone; (3) if E is reflexive, then J is surjective; (4) if E is uniformly smooth, then J is uniformly normtonorm continuous on each bounded subset of E; (5) if ${E}^{\ast}$ is uniformly convex, then J is uniformly continuous on bounded subsets of E and J is singevalued and also onetoone (see [1–4]).
Let E be a smooth Banach space with the dual ${E}^{\ast}$. The functional $\varphi :E\times E\to R$ is defined by
for all $x,y\in E$.
Let C be a closed convex subset of E, and let T be a mapping from C into itself. We denote by $F(T)$ the set of fixed points of T. A point p in C is said to be an asymptotic fixed point of T [5] if C contains a sequence $\{{x}_{n}\}$ which converges weakly to p such that the strong ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}({x}_{n}T{x}_{n})=0$. The set of asymptotic fixed points of T will be denoted by $\stackrel{\u02c6}{F}(T)$. A mapping T from C into itself is called nonexpansive if $\parallel TxTy\parallel \le \parallel xy\parallel $ for all $x,y\in C$ and relatively nonexpansive if $F(T)=\stackrel{\u02c6}{F}(T)$ and $\varphi (p,Tx)\le \varphi (p,x)$ for all $x\in C$ and $p\in F(T)$. The asymptotic behavior of a relatively nonexpansive mapping was studied in [1, 6–9].
Three classical iteration processes are often used to approximate a fixed point of a nonexpansive mapping. The first one was introduced in 1953 by Mann [10] and is well known as Mann’s iteration process defined as follows:
where the sequence $\{{\alpha}_{n}\}$ is chosen in $[0,1]$. Fourteen years later, Halpern [11] proposed the new innovation iteration process which resembled Mann’s iteration (1.1). It is defined by
where the element $u\in C$ is fixed. Seven years later, Ishikawa [2] enlarged and improved Mann’s iteration (1.1) to the new iteration method, which is often cited as Ishikawa’s iteration process and defined recursively by
where $\{{\alpha}_{n}\}$ and $\{{\beta}_{n}\}$ are sequences in the interval $[0,1]$.
In both Hilbert space [11–13] and uniformly smooth Banach space [14–16] the iteration process (1.2) has been proved to be strongly convergent if the sequence $\{{\alpha}_{n}\}$ satisfies the following conditions:

(i)
${\alpha}_{n}\to 0$;

(ii)
${\sum}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}{\alpha}_{n}=\mathrm{\infty}$;

(iii)
${\sum}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}{\alpha}_{n+1}{\alpha}_{n}<\mathrm{\infty}$ or ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}\frac{{\alpha}_{n}}{{\alpha}_{n+1}}=1$.
By the restriction of condition (ii), it is widely believed that Halpern’s iteration process (1.2) has slow convergence though the rate of convergence has not been determined. Halpern [11] proved that conditions (i) and (ii) are necessary in the strong convergence of (1.2) for a nonexpansive mapping T on a closed convex subset C of a Hilbert space H. Moreover, Wittmann [13] showed that (1.2) converges strongly to ${P}_{F(T)}u$ when $\{{\alpha}_{n}\}$ satisfies (i), (ii) and (iii), where ${P}_{F(T)}(\cdot )$ is the metric projection onto $F(T)$.
Both iteration processes (1.1) and (1.3) have only weak convergence in a general Banach space (see [17] for more details). As a matter of fact, the process (1.1) may fail to converge, while the process (1.3) can still converge for a Lipschitz pseudocontractive mapping in a Hilbert space [18]. For example, Reich [19] proved that if E is a uniformly convex Banach space with the Fréchet differentiable norm and if $\{{\alpha}_{n}\}$ is chosen such that ${\sum}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}{\alpha}_{n}(1{\alpha}_{n})=\mathrm{\infty}$, then the sequence $\{{x}_{n}\}$ defined by (1.1) converges weakly to a fixed point of T. However, we note that Mann’s iteration process (1.1) has only weak convergence even in a Hilbert space [17].
Some attempts to modify the Mann iteration method so that strong convergence is guaranteed have recently been made. Nakajo and Takahashi [20] proposed the following modification of the Mann iteration method for a single nonexpansive mapping T in a Hilbert space H:
where C is a closed convex subset of H, ${P}_{K}$ denotes the metric projection from H onto a closed convex subset K of H. They proved that if the sequence $\{{\alpha}_{n}\}$ is bounded above from one, then the sequence $\{{x}_{n}\}$ generated by (1.4) converges strongly to ${P}_{F(T)}({x}_{0})$, where $F(T)$ denotes the fixed point set of T.
The ideas to generalize the process (1.4) from a Hilbert space to a Banach space have recently been made. By using available properties on a uniformly convex and uniformly smooth Banach space, Matsushita and Takahashi [9] presented their ideas as the following method for a single relatively nonexpansive mapping T in a Banach space E:
They proved the following convergence theorem.
Theorem MT Let E be a uniformly convex and uniformly smooth Banach space, let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of E, let T be a relatively nonexpansive mapping from C into itself, and let $\{{\alpha}_{n}\}$ be a sequence of real numbers such that $0\le {\alpha}_{n}<1$ and ${lim\hspace{0.17em}sup}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{\alpha}_{n}<1$. Suppose that $\{{x}_{n}\}$ is given by (1.6), where J is the duality mapping on E. If $F(T)$ is nonempty, then $\{{x}_{n}\}$ converges strongly to ${\mathrm{\Pi}}_{F(T)}{x}_{0}$, where ${\mathrm{\Pi}}_{F(T)}(\cdot )$ is the generalized projection from C onto $F(T)$.
In 2007, Plubtieng and Ungchittrakool [21] proposed the following hybrid algorithms for two relatively nonexpansive mappings in a Banach space and proved the following convergence theorems.
Theorem SK1 Let E be a uniformly convex and uniformly smooth real Banach space, let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of E, let T, S be two relatively nonexpansive mappings from C into itself with $F:=F(T)\cap F(S)$ is nonempty. Let a sequence $\{{x}_{n}\}$ be defined by
with the following restrictions:

(i)
$0\le {\alpha}_{n}<1$, ${lim\hspace{0.17em}sup}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{\alpha}_{n}<1$;

(ii)
$0\le {\beta}_{n}^{(1)},{\beta}_{n}^{(1)},{\beta}_{n}^{(3)}\le 1$, ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{\beta}_{n}^{(1)}=0$, ${lim\hspace{0.17em}inf}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{\beta}_{n}^{(2)}{\beta}_{n}^{(3)}>0$.
Then $\{{x}_{n}\}$ converges strongly to ${\mathrm{\Pi}}_{F}{x}_{0}$, where ${\mathrm{\Pi}}_{F}$ is the generalized projection from C onto F.
Theorem SK2 Let E be a uniformly convex and uniformly smooth Banach space, let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of E, let T, S be two relatively nonexpansive mappings from C into itself with $F:=F(T)\cap F(S)$ is nonempty. Let a sequence $\{{x}_{n}\}$ be defined by
with the following restrictions:

(i)
$0<{\alpha}_{n}<1$, ${lim\hspace{0.17em}sup}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{\alpha}_{n}<1$;

(ii)
$0\le {\beta}_{n}^{(1)},{\beta}_{n}^{(1)},{\beta}_{n}^{(3)}\le 1$, ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{\beta}_{n}^{(1)}=0$, ${lim\hspace{0.17em}inf}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{\beta}_{n}^{(2)}{\beta}_{n}^{(3)}>0$.
Then $\{{x}_{n}\}$ converges strongly to ${\mathrm{\Pi}}_{F}{x}_{0}$, where ${\mathrm{\Pi}}_{F}$ is the generalized projection from C onto F.
In 2010, Su, Xu and Zhang [22] proposed the following hybrid algorithms for two countable families of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings in a Banach space and proved the following convergence theorems.
Theorem SKZ Let E be a uniformly convex and uniformly smooth real Banach space, let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of E, let $\{{T}_{n}\}$, $\{{S}_{n}\}$ be two countable families of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings from C into itself such that $F:=({\bigcap}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}F({T}_{n}))\cap ({\bigcap}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}F({S}_{n}))\ne \mathrm{\varnothing}$. Define a sequence $\{{x}_{n}\}$ in C by the following algorithm:
with the conditions

(i)
${lim\hspace{0.17em}inf}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{\beta}_{n}^{(1)}{\beta}_{n}^{(2)}>0$;

(ii)
${lim\hspace{0.17em}inf}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{\beta}_{n}^{(1)}{\beta}_{n}^{(3)}>0$;

(iii)
$0\le {\alpha}_{n}\le \alpha <1$ for some $\alpha \in (0,1)$.
Then $\{{x}_{n}\}$ converges strongly to ${\mathrm{\Pi}}_{F}{x}_{0}$, where ${\mathrm{\Pi}}_{F}$ is the generalized projection from C onto F.
Unfortunately, in recent years, many hybrid algorithms have been very complex, so these complex algorithms are not applicable or are very difficult in applications. Naturally, we hope to obtain some simple and practical algorithms. The purpose of this article is to present a simple projection algorithm for a countable family of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings and to prove strong convergence theorems in Banach spaces.
In addition, we shall give an example which is a countable family of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings, but not a countable family of relatively nonexpansive mappings.
2 Preliminaries
Let E be a smooth Banach space with the dual ${E}^{\ast}$. The functional $\varphi :E\times E\to R$ is defined by
for all $x,y\in E$. Observe that in a Hilbert space H, (2.1) reduces to $\varphi (x,y)={\parallel xy\parallel}^{2}$, $x,y\in H$.
Recall that if C is a nonempty, closed and convex subset of a Hilbert space H and ${P}_{C}:H\to C$ is the metric projection of H onto C, then ${P}_{C}$ is nonexpansive. This is true only when H is a real Hilbert space. In this connection, Alber [23] has recently introduced a generalized projection operator ${\mathrm{\Pi}}_{C}$ in a Banach space E which is an analogue of the metric projection in Hilbert spaces. The generalized projection ${\mathrm{\Pi}}_{C}:E\to C$ is a map that assigns to an arbitrary point $x\in E$ the minimum point of the functional $\varphi (y,x)$, that is, ${\mathrm{\Pi}}_{C}x=\overline{x}$, where $\overline{x}$ is the solution to the minimization problem
The existence and uniqueness of the operator ${\mathrm{\Pi}}_{C}$ follow from the properties of the functional $\varphi (y,x)$ and strict monotonicity of the mapping J. In a Hilbert space, ${\mathrm{\Pi}}_{C}={P}_{C}$. It is obvious from the definition of the functional ϕ that
and
for all $x,y\in E$. See [24] for more details.
This section collects some definitions and lemmas which will be used in the proofs for the main results in the next section. Some of them are known; others are not hard to derive.
Remark 2.1 If E is a reflexive strictly convex and smooth Banach space, then for $x,y\in E$, $\varphi (x,y)=0$ if and only if $x=y$. It is sufficient to show that if $\varphi (x,y)=0$ then $x=y$. From (2.3), we have $\parallel x\parallel =\parallel y\parallel $. This implies $\u3008x,Jy\u3009={\parallel x\parallel}^{2}={\parallel Jy\parallel}^{2}$. From the definition of J, we have $Jx=Jy$. Since J is onetoone, then we have $x=y$; see [13, 16, 25] for more details.
In this paper, we give the definitions of a countable family of relatively nonexpansive mappings and a countable family of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings which are generalizations of a relatively nonexpansive mapping and a weak relatively nonexpansive mapping respectively. We also give an example which is a countable family of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings, but not a countable family of relatively nonexpansive mappings.
Let C be a closed convex subset of E, and let ${\{{T}_{n}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}$ be a countable family of mappings from C into itself. We denote by F the set of common fixed points of ${\{{T}_{n}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}$. That is $F={\bigcap}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}F({T}_{n})$, where $F({T}_{n})$ denotes the set of fixed points of ${T}_{n}$ for all $n\ge 0$. A point p in C is said to be an asymptotic fixed point of ${\{{T}_{n}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}$ if C contains a sequence $\{{x}_{n}\}$ which converges weakly to p such that ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}\parallel {T}_{n}{x}_{n}{x}_{n}\parallel =0$. The set of asymptotic fixed points of ${\{{T}_{n}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}$ will be denoted by $\stackrel{\u02c6}{F}({\{{T}_{n}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}})$. A point p in C is said to be a strong asymptotic fixed point of ${\{{T}_{n}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}$ if C contains a sequence $\{{x}_{n}\}$ which converges strongly to p such that ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}\parallel {T}_{n}{x}_{n}{x}_{n}\parallel =0$. The set of strong asymptotic fixed points of ${\{{T}_{n}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}$ will be denoted by $\tilde{F}({\{{T}_{n}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}})$.
Definition 2.2 The countable family of mappings ${\{{T}_{n}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}$ is said to be a countable family of relatively nonexpansive mappings if the following conditions are satisfied:

(1)
$F({\{{T}_{n}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}})$ is nonempty;

(2)
$\varphi (u,{T}_{n}x)\le \varphi (u,x)$, $\mathrm{\forall}u\in F({T}_{n})$, $x\in C$, $n\ge 0$;

(3)
$\stackrel{\u02c6}{F}({\{{T}_{n}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}})={\bigcap}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}F({T}_{n})$.
Definition 2.3 The countable family of mappings ${\{{T}_{n}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}$ is said to be a countable family of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings if the following conditions are satisfied:

(1)
$F({\{{T}_{n}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}})$ is nonempty;

(2)
$\varphi (u,{T}_{n}x)\le \varphi (u,x)$, $\mathrm{\forall}u\in F({T}_{n})$, $x\in C$, $n\ge 0$;

(3)
$\tilde{F}({\{{T}_{n}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}})={\bigcap}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}F({T}_{n})$.
Definition 2.4 [21]
The mapping T is said to be a relatively nonexpansive mapping if the following conditions are satisfied:

(1)
$F(T)$ is nonempty;

(2)
$\varphi (u,Tx)\le \varphi (u,x)$, $\mathrm{\forall}u\in F(T)$, $x\in C$;

(3)
$\tilde{F}(T)=F(T)$.
Definition 2.5 The mapping T is said to be a weak relatively nonexpansive mapping if the following conditions are satisfied:

(1)
$F(T)$ is nonempty;

(2)
$\varphi (u,Tx)\le \varphi (u,x)$, $\mathrm{\forall}u\in F(T)$, $x\in C$;

(3)
$\tilde{F}(T)=F(T)$.
Definition 2.4 (Definition 2.5) is a special form of Definition 2.2 (Definition 2.3) as ${T}_{n}\equiv T$ for all $n\ge 0$.
The hybrid algorithms for a fixed point of relatively nonexpansive mappings and applications have been studied by many authors; see, for example, [1, 6, 7, 18, 26, 27]. In recent years, the definition of a weak relatively nonexpansive mapping has been presented and studied by many authors [7, 18, 25, 27], but they have not given an example of a mapping which is weak relatively nonexpansive, but not relatively nonexpansive.
In the next section, we shall give an example which is a countable family of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings, but not a countable family of relatively nonexpansive mappings.
We need the following lemmas for the proof of our main results.
Lemma 2.6 [24]
Let E be a uniformly convex and smooth real Banach space and let $\{{x}_{n}\}$, $\{{y}_{n}\}$ be two sequences of E. If $\varphi ({x}_{n},{y}_{n})\to 0$ and either $\{{x}_{n}\}$ or $\{{y}_{n}\}$ is bounded, then $\parallel {x}_{n}{y}_{n}\parallel \to 0$.
Let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of a smooth real Banach space E and $x\in E$. Then, ${x}_{0}={\mathrm{\Pi}}_{C}x$ if and only if
Let E be a reflexive, strictly convex and smooth real Banach space, let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of E and let $x\in E$. Then
Lemma 2.9 [27]
Let E be a uniformly convex Banach space and ${B}_{r}(0)=\{x\in E:\parallel x\parallel \le r\}$ be a closed ball of E. Then there exists a continuous strictly increasing convex function $g:[0,\mathrm{\infty})\to [0,\mathrm{\infty})$ with $g(0)=0$ such that
for all $x,y,z\in {B}_{r}(0)$ and $\lambda ,\mu ,\gamma \in [0,1]$ with $\lambda +\mu +\gamma =1$.
It is easy to prove the following result.
Lemma 2.10 Let E be a strictly convex and smooth real Banach space, let C be a closed convex subset of E, and let T be a weak relatively nonexpansive mapping from C into itself. Then $F(T)$ is closed and convex.
3 Main results
Firstly, we give an example which is a countable family of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings, but not a countable family of relatively nonexpansive mappings in the Banach space ${l}^{2}$.
Example 1 Let $E={l}^{2}$, where
It is well known that ${l}^{2}$ is a Hilbert space, so ${({l}^{2})}^{\ast}={l}^{2}$. Let $\{{x}_{n}\}\subset E$ be a sequence defined by
where
for all $n\ge 1$.
Define a countable family of mappings ${T}_{n}:E\to E$ as follows:
for all $n\ge 0$.
Conclusion 3.1 $\{{x}_{n}\}$ converges weakly to ${x}_{0}$.
Proof For any $f=({\zeta}_{1},{\zeta}_{2},{\zeta}_{3},\dots ,{\zeta}_{k},\dots )\in {l}^{2}={({l}^{2})}^{\ast}$, we have
as $n\to \mathrm{\infty}$. That is, $\{{x}_{n}\}$ converges weakly to ${x}_{0}$. □
Conclusion 3.2 $\{{x}_{n}\}$ is not a Cauchy sequence, so, it does not converge strongly to any element of ${l}^{2}$.
Proof In fact, we have $\parallel {x}_{n}{x}_{m}\parallel =\sqrt{2}$ for any $n\ne m$. Then $\{{x}_{n}\}$ is not a Cauchy sequence. □
Conclusion 3.3 ${T}_{n}$ has a unique fixed point 0, that is, $F({T}_{n})=\{0\}$ for all $n\ge 0$.
Proof The conclusion is obvious. □
Conclusion 3.4 ${x}_{0}$ is an asymptotic fixed point of ${\{{T}_{n}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}$.
Proof Since $\{{x}_{n}\}$ converges weakly to ${x}_{0}$ and
as $n\to \mathrm{\infty}$, so, ${x}_{0}$ is an asymptotic fixed point of ${\{{T}_{n}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}$. □
Conclusion 3.5 ${\{{T}_{n}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}$ has a unique strong asymptotic fixed point 0, so, ${\bigcap}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}F({T}_{n})=\tilde{F}({\{{T}_{n}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}})$.
Proof In fact, for any strong convergent sequence $\{{z}_{n}\}\subset E$ such that ${z}_{n}\to {z}_{0}$ and $\parallel {z}_{n}{T}_{n}{z}_{n}\parallel \to 0$ as $n\to \mathrm{\infty}$, from Conclusion 3.2, there exists a sufficiently large natural number N such that ${z}_{n}\ne {x}_{m}$ for any $n,m>N$. Then $T{z}_{n}={z}_{n}$ for $n>N$, it follows from $\parallel {z}_{n}{T}_{n}{z}_{n}\parallel \to 0$ that $2{z}_{n}\to 0$ and hence ${z}_{n}\to {z}_{0}=0$. □
Conclusion 3.6 ${\{{T}_{n}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}$ is a countable family of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings.
Proof Since $E={L}^{2}$ is a Hilbert space, for any $n\ge 0$, we have
From Conclusion 3.5, we have ${\bigcap}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}F({T}_{n})=\tilde{F}({\{{T}_{n}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}})$, then ${\{{T}_{n}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}$ is a countable family of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings. □
Conclusion 3.7 ${\{{T}_{n}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}$ is not a countable family of relatively nonexpansive mappings.
Proof From Conclusions 3.3 and 3.4, we have ${\bigcap}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}F({T}_{n})\ne \stackrel{\u02c6}{F}({\{{T}_{n}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}})$, so, ${\{{T}_{n}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}$ is not a countable family of relatively nonexpansive mappings. □
Secondly, we give another example which is a weak relatively nonexpansive mapping, but not a relatively nonexpansive mapping in the Banach space ${l}^{2}$.
Example 2 Let $E={l}^{2}$, where
It is well known that ${l}^{2}$ is a Hilbert space, so ${({l}^{2})}^{\ast}={l}^{2}$. Let $\{{x}_{n}\}\subset E$ be a sequence defined by
where
for all $n\ge 1$. Define the mapping $T:E\to E$ as follows
Conclusion 3.8 $\{{x}_{n}\}$ converges weakly to ${x}_{0}$.
Proof For any $f=({\zeta}_{1},{\zeta}_{2},{\zeta}_{3},\dots ,{\zeta}_{k},\dots )\in {l}^{2}={({l}^{2})}^{\ast}$, we have
as $n\to \mathrm{\infty}$. That is, $\{{x}_{n}\}$ converges weakly to ${x}_{0}$. □
Conclusion 3.9 $\{{x}_{n}\}$ is not a Cauchy sequence, so, it does not converge strongly to any element of ${l}^{2}$.
Proof In fact, we have $\parallel {x}_{n}{x}_{m}\parallel =\sqrt{2}$ for any $n\ne m$. Then $\{{x}_{n}\}$ is not a Cauchy sequence. □
Conclusion 3.10 T has a unique fixed point 0, that is, $F(T)=\{0\}$.
Proof The conclusion is obvious. □
Conclusion 3.11 ${x}_{0}$ is an asymptotic fixed point of T.
Proof Since $\{{x}_{n}\}$ converges weakly to ${x}_{0}$ and
as $n\to \mathrm{\infty}$, then ${x}_{0}$ is an asymptotic fixed point of T. □
Conclusion 3.12 T has a unique strong asymptotic fixed point 0, so, $F(T)=\tilde{F}(T)$.
Proof In fact, for any strong convergent sequence $\{{z}_{n}\}\subset E$ such that ${z}_{n}\to {z}_{0}$ and $\parallel {z}_{n}T{z}_{n}\parallel \to 0$ as $n\to \mathrm{\infty}$, from Conclusion 3.9, there exists a sufficiently large natural number N such that ${z}_{n}\ne {x}_{m}$, for any $n,m>N$. Then $T{z}_{n}={z}_{n}$ for $n>N$, it follows from $\parallel {z}_{n}T{z}_{n}\parallel \to 0$ that $2{z}_{n}\to 0$ and hence ${z}_{n}\to {z}_{0}=0$. □
Conclusion 3.13 T is a weak relatively nonexpansive mapping.
Proof Since $E={L}^{2}$ is a Hilbert space, we have
From Conclusion 3.12, we have $F(T)=\tilde{F}(T)$, then T is a weak relatively nonexpansive mapping. □
Conclusion 3.14 T is not a relatively nonexpansive mapping.
Proof From Conclusions 3.10 and 3.11, we have $F(T)\ne \stackrel{\u02c6}{F}(T)$, so, T is not a relatively nonexpansive mapping. □
Next, we prove our convergence theorems as follows.
Theorem 3.15 Let E be a uniformly convex and uniformly smooth Banach space, let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of E, let $\{{T}_{n}\}:C\to C$ be a countable family of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings such that $F={\bigcap}_{n=1}^{\mathrm{\infty}}F({T}_{n})\ne \mathrm{\varnothing}$. For any given gauss ${x}_{0}\in C$, define a sequence $\{{x}_{n}\}$ in C by the following algorithm:
Then $\{{x}_{n}\}$ converges strongly to $q={\mathrm{\Pi}}_{F}{x}_{0}$.
Proof Firstly, ${C}_{n}$ is closed and convex. Since T is a closed hemirelatively nonexpansive mapping, then $F(T)\subseteq {C}_{n}$, $n=0,1,2,3,\dots $ .
Since ${x}_{n}={\mathrm{\Pi}}_{{C}_{n}}{x}_{0}$ and ${C}_{n}\subset {C}_{n1}$, then we get
Therefore, $\{\varphi ({x}_{n},{x}_{0})\}$ is nondecreasing. On the other hand, by Lemma 2.8 we have
for all $p\in F(T)\subset {C}_{n}$ and for all $n\ge 0$. Therefore, $\varphi ({x}_{n},{x}_{0})$ is also bounded. This together with (3.2) implies that the limit of $\{\varphi ({x}_{n},{x}_{0})\}$ exists. Put
From Lemma 2.8, we have, for any positive integer m, that
for all $n\ge 0$. This together with (3.3) implies that
holds, uniformly for all m. By using Lemma 2.6, we get that
holds, uniformly for all m. Then $\{{x}_{n}\}$ is a Cauchy sequence. Therefore, there exists a point $p\in C$ such that ${x}_{n}\to p$.
Since ${x}_{n+1}={\mathrm{\Pi}}_{{C}_{n+1}}{x}_{0}\subset {C}_{n+1}\subset {C}_{n}$, then
By using Lemma 2.6, we have $\parallel {x}_{n}{T}_{n}{x}_{n}\parallel \to 0$; therefore, $p\in F(T)$.
Finally, we prove that $p={\mathrm{\Pi}}_{F}{x}_{0}$. From Lemma 2.8, we have
On the other hand, since ${x}_{n+1}={\mathrm{\Pi}}_{{C}_{n+1}}{x}_{0}$ and $F\subset {C}_{n}$ for all n, also from Lemma 2.8, we have
By the definition of $\varphi (x,y)$, we know that
Combining (3.4) and (3.5), we know that $\varphi (p,{x}_{0})=\varphi ({\mathrm{\Pi}}_{F}{x}_{0},{x}_{0})$. Therefore, it follows from the uniqueness of ${\mathrm{\Pi}}_{F}{x}_{0}$ that $p={\mathrm{\Pi}}_{F}{x}_{0}$. This completes the proof. □
Theorem 3.16 Let E be a uniformly convex and uniformly smooth Banach space, let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of E, let $\{{T}_{n}\}:C\to C$ be a countable family of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings such that $F={\bigcap}_{n=1}^{\mathrm{\infty}}F({T}_{n})\ne \mathrm{\varnothing}$. For any given gauss ${x}_{0}\in C$, define a sequence $\{{x}_{n}\}$ in C by the following algorithm:
Then $\{{x}_{n}\}$ converges strongly to $q={\mathrm{\Pi}}_{F}{x}_{0}$.
Proof Let $\{{x}_{n}\}$ be defined by (3.1). We claim that
Therefore,
If not, there exists ${x}_{n+1}$ such that
We define
Observe that $z(0)={x}_{n+1}$. Since $\varphi (\cdot ,{T}_{n}{x}_{n})$, $\varphi (\cdot ,{x}_{n})$ are continuous, then there exists ${t}_{0}\in (0,1)$ such that
that is, $z({t}_{0})\in {C}_{n+1}$. On the other hand, we have
This is a contradiction to ${x}_{n+1}={\mathrm{\Pi}}_{{C}_{n+1}}{x}_{0}$ and $z({t}_{0})\in {C}_{n+1}$. This completes the proof. □
4 Applications
Now, we apply Theorem 3.15 to prove a strong convergence theorem concerning maximal monotone operators in a Banach space E.
Let A be a multivalued operator from E to ${E}^{\ast}$ with the domain $D(A)=\{z\in E:Az\ne \mathrm{\varnothing}\}$ and range $R(A)=\{z\in E:z\in D(A)\}$. An operator A is said to be monotone if
for each ${x}_{1},{x}_{2}\in D(A)$ and ${y}_{1}\in A{x}_{1}$, ${y}_{2}\in A{x}_{2}$. A monotone operator A is said to be maximal if its graph $G(A)=\{(x,y):y\in Ax\}$ is not properly contained in the graph of any other monotone operator. We know that if A is a maximal monotone operator, then ${A}^{1}0$ is closed and convex. The following result is also well known.
Theorem 4.1 (Rockafellar [28])
Let E be a reflexive, strictly convex and smooth Banach space, and let A be a monotone operator from E to ${E}^{\ast}$. Then A is maximal if and only if $R(J+rA)={E}^{\ast}$ for all $r>0$.
Let E be a reflexive, strictly convex and smooth Banach space, and let A be a maximal monotone operator from E to ${E}^{\ast}$. Using Theorem 4.1 and strict convexity of E, we obtain that for every $r>0$ and $x\in E$, there exists a unique ${x}_{r}$ such that
Then we can define a single valued mapping ${J}_{r}:E\to D(A)$ by ${J}_{r}={(J+rA)}^{1}J$ and such a ${J}_{r}$ is called the resolvent of A. We know that ${A}^{1}=F({J}_{r})$ for all $r>0$, see [4, 15] for more details. Using Theorem 3.15, we can consider the problem of strong convergence concerning maximal monotone operators in a Banach space. Such a problem has been also studied in [4, 5, 15, 20, 22, 24, 29–36].
Theorem 4.2 Let E be a uniformly convex and uniformly smooth real Banach space, let A be a maximal monotone operators from E to ${E}^{\ast}$ such that ${A}^{1}0\ne \mathrm{\varnothing}$, let ${J}_{r}$ be the resolvent of A, where $r>0$. For any given gauss ${x}_{0}\in {C}_{0}=C$, define a sequence $\{{x}_{n}\}$ in C by the following algorithm:
with the condition, ${r}_{n}>0$, ${lim\hspace{0.17em}inf}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{r}_{n}>0$. Then $\{{x}_{n}\}$ converges strongly to $q={\mathrm{\Pi}}_{{A}^{1}0}{x}_{0}$.
Proof We only need to prove that ${\{{J}_{{r}_{n}}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}$, is a countable family of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings.
Firstly, we have ${\bigcap}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}F({J}_{{r}_{n}})={A}^{1}0\ne \mathrm{\varnothing}$. Secondly, from the monotonicity of A, we have
for all $n\ge 0$. Thirdly, we prove the set of strong asymptotic fixed points $\tilde{F}({\{{J}_{{r}_{n}}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}})={\bigcap}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}F({J}_{{r}_{n}})={A}^{1}0$.
We first show that $\tilde{F}({\{{J}_{{r}_{n}}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}})\subset {A}^{1}0$. Let $p\in \tilde{F}({\{{J}_{{r}_{n}}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}})$, then there exists $\{{z}_{n}\}\subset E$ such that ${z}_{n}\to p$ and ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}\parallel {z}_{n}{J}_{{r}_{n}}{z}_{n}\parallel =0$. Since J is uniformly normtonorm continuous on bounded sets, we obtain
It follows from
and the monotonicity of A that
for all $w\in D(A)$ and ${w}^{\ast}\in Aw$. Letting $n\to \mathrm{\infty}$, we have $\u3008wp,{w}^{\ast}\u3009\ge 0$ for all $w\in D(A)$ and ${w}^{\ast}\in Aw$. Therefore, from the maximality of A, we obtain $p\in {A}^{1}0$. On the other hand, we know that $F({J}_{{r}_{n}})={A}^{1}0$, $F({J}_{{r}_{n}})\subset \tilde{F}({J}_{{r}_{n}})$ for all $n\ge 0$; therefore, ${A}^{1}0={\bigcap}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}F({J}_{{r}_{n}})=\tilde{F}({\bigcap}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}{J}_{{r}_{n}})$. From above three conclusions, we have proved ${\{{J}_{{r}_{n}}\}}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}$ is a countable family of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings. By using Theorem 3.16, we can conclude that $\{{x}_{n}\}$ converges strongly to ${\mathrm{\Pi}}_{{A}^{1}0}{x}_{0}$. This completes the proof. □
References
 1.
Butnariu D, Reich S, Zaslavski AJ: Weak convergence of orbits of nonlinear operators in reflexive Banach spaces. Numer. Funct. Anal. Optim. 2003, 24: 489–508. 10.1081/NFA120023869
 2.
Ishikawa S: Fixed points by a new iteration method. Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 1974, 44: 147–150. 10.1090/S00029939197403364695
 3.
Reich S: Review of geometry of Banach spaces duality mappings and nonlinear problems by Ioana Cioranescu, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 1990. Bull. Am. Math. Soc. 1992, 26: 367–370. 10.1090/S027309791992002872
 4.
Takahashi W: Nonlinear Functional Analysis. YokohamaPublishers, Yokohama; 2000.
 5.
Reich S: A weak convergence theorem for the alternating method with Bregman distance. In Theory and Applications of Nonlinear Operators of Accretive and Monotone Type. Edited by: Kartsatos AG. Dekker, New York; 1996:313–318.
 6.
Butnariu D, Reich S, Zaslavski AJ: Asymptotic behavior of relatively nonexpansive operators in Banach spaces. J. Appl. Anal. 2001, 7: 151–174.
 7.
Censor Y, Reich S: Iterations of paracontractions and firmly nonexpansive operators with applications to feasibility and optimization. Optimization 1996, 37: 323–339. 10.1080/02331939608844225
 8.
MartinezYanes C, Xu HK: Strong convergence of the CQ method for fixed point iteration processes. Nonlinear Anal. 2006, 64: 2400–2411. 10.1016/j.na.2005.08.018
 9.
Matsushita S, Takahashi W: A strong convergence theorem for relatively nonexpansive mappings in a Banach space. J. Approx. Theory 2005, 134: 257–266. 10.1016/j.jat.2005.02.007
 10.
Mann WR: Mean value methods in iteration. Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 1953, 4: 506–510. 10.1090/S00029939195300548463
 11.
Halpern B: Fixed points of nonexpanding maps. Bull. Am. Math. Soc. 1967, 73: 957–961. 10.1090/S000299041967118640
 12.
Lions P: Approximation de points fixes de contractions. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Sér. AB 1977, 284: 1357–1359.
 13.
Wittmann R: Approximation of fixed points of nonexpansive mappings. Arch. Math. 1992, 58: 486–491. 10.1007/BF01190119
 14.
Reich S: Strong convergence theorems for resolvents of accretive operators in Banach spaces. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 1980, 75: 287–292. 10.1016/0022247X(80)903236
 15.
Takahashi W: Convex Analysis and Approximation Fixed Points. YokohamaPublishers, Yokohama; 2000. in Japanese
 16.
Xu HK: Iterative algorithms for nonlinear operators. J. Lond. Math. Soc. 2002, 66: 240–256. 10.1112/S0024610702003332
 17.
Genel A, Lindenstrass J: An example concerning fixed points. Isr. J. Math. 1975, 22: 81–86. 10.1007/BF02757276
 18.
Chidume CE, Mutangadura SA: An example on the Mann iteration method for Lipschitz pseudocontractions. Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 2001, 129: 2359–2363. 10.1090/S0002993901060099
 19.
Reich S: Weak convergence theorems for nonexpansive mappings in Banach spaces. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 1979, 67: 274–276. 10.1016/0022247X(79)900246
 20.
Nakajo K, Takahashi W: Strong convergence theorems for nonexpansive mappings and nonexpansive semigroups. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 2003, 279: 372–379. 10.1016/S0022247X(02)004584
 21.
Plubtieng S, Ungchittrakool K: Strong convergence theorems for a common fixed point of two relatively nonexpansive mappings in a Banach space. J. Approx. Theory 2007, 149: 103–115. 10.1016/j.jat.2007.04.014
 22.
Su Y, Xu H, Zhang X: Strong convergence theorems for two countable families of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings and applications. Nonlinear Anal. 2010, 73: 3890–3906. 10.1016/j.na.2010.08.021
 23.
Alber YI: Metric and generalized projection operators in Banach spaces: properties and applications. In Theory and Applications of Nonlinear Operators of Accretive and Monotone Type. Edited by: Kartsatos AG. Dekker, New York; 1996:15–50.
 24.
Kamimura S, Takahashi W: Strong convergence of a proximaltype algorithm in a Banach space. SIAM J. Optim. 2002, 13: 938–945. 10.1137/S105262340139611X
 25.
Cioranescu I: Geometry of Banach Spaces, Duality Mappings and Nonlinear Problems. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht; 1990.
 26.
Alber YI, Reich S: An iterative method for solving a class of nonlinear operator equations in Banach spaces. Panam. Math. J. 1994, 4: 39–54.
 27.
Cho YJ, Zhou HY, Guo G: Weak and strong convergence theorems for threestep iterations with errors for asymptotically nonexpansive mappings. Comput. Math. Appl. 2004, 47: 707–717. 10.1016/S08981221(04)900582
 28.
Rockafellar R: On the maximality of sums of nonlinear monotone operators. Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 1970, 149: 75–88. 10.1090/S00029947197002822725
 29.
Kohsaka F, Takahashi W: Strong convergence of an iterative sequence for maximal monotone operators in a Banach space. Abstr. Appl. Anal. 2004, 2004: 239–249. 10.1155/S1085337504309036
 30.
Ohsawa S, Takahashi W: Strong convergence theorems for resolvents of maximal monotone operators in Banach spaces. Arch. Math. 2003, 81: 439–445. 10.1007/s0001300305087
 31.
Reich S: Constructive techniques for accretive and monotone operators. In Applied Nonlinear Analysis. Proceedings of the Third International Conference University of Texas. Academic Press, New York; 1979:335–345., Arlington, TX, 1978
 32.
Solodov M, Svaiter B: Forcing strong convergence of proximal point iterations in Hilbert space. Math. Program. 2000, 87: 189–202.
 33.
Ye J, Huang J: Strong convergence theorems for fixed point problems and generalized equilibrium problems of three relatively quasinonexpansive mappings in Banach spaces. J. Math. Comput. Sci. 2011, 1: 1–18.
 34.
Chang SS, Chan CK, Lee HWJ: Modified block iterative algorithm for Quasi ϕ asymptotically nonexpansive mappings and equilibrium problem in Banach spaces. Appl. Math. Comput. 2011, 217: 7520–7530. 10.1016/j.amc.2011.02.060
 35.
Shioji N, Takahashi W: Strong convergence of approximated sequences for nonexpansive mappings in Banach spaces. Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 1997, 125: 3641–3645. 10.1090/S0002993997040331
 36.
Su Y, Wang Z, Xu H: Strong convergence theorems for a common fixed point of two hemirelatively nonexpansive mappings. Nonlinear Anal. 2009, 71: 5616–5628. 10.1016/j.na.2009.04.053
Acknowledgements
This project is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant (11071279).
Author information
Affiliations
Corresponding author
Additional information
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Authors’ contributions
All the authors contributed equally to the writing of the present article. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Zhang, J., Su, Y. & Cheng, Q. Simple projection algorithm for a countable family of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings and applications. Fixed Point Theory Appl 2012, 205 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1186/168718122012205
Received:
Accepted:
Published:
Keywords
 relatively nonexpansive mapping
 weak relatively nonexpansive mapping
 generalized projection
 projection algorithm
 monotone hybrid algorithm