Open Access

Common fixed points of mappings satisfying implicit contractive conditions

Fixed Point Theory and Applications20122012:105

https://doi.org/10.1186/1687-1812-2012-105

Received: 18 April 2012

Accepted: 24 June 2012

Published: 24 June 2012

Abstract

In this article we obtain, in the setting of metric spaces or ordered metric spaces, coincidence point, and common fixed point theorems for self-mappings in a general class of contractions defined by an implicit relation. Our results unify, extend, generalize many related common fixed point theorems from the literature.

Mathematics Subject Classification (2000): 47H10, 54H25.

Keywords

implicit relationcontractioncoincidence pointfixed pointcommon fixed point

Introduction and preliminaries

It is well known that the contraction mapping principle, formulated and proved in the Ph.D. dissertation of Banach in 1920, which was published in 1922 [1], is one of the most important theorems in classical functional analysis. The study of fixed and common fixed points of mappings satisfying a certain metrical contractive condition attracted many researchers, see for example [2, 3] and for existence results for fixed points of contractive non-self-mappings, see [46]. Among these (common) fixed point theorems, only a few give a constructive method for finding the fixed points or the common fixed points of the mappings involved. Berinde in [715] obtained (common) fixed point theorems, which were called constructive (common) fixed point theorems, see [12]. These results have been obtained by considering self-mappings that satisfy an explicit contractive-type condition. On the other hand, several classical fixed point theorems and common fixed point theorems have been recently unified by considering general contractive conditions expressed by an implicit relation, see Popa [16, 17] and Ali and Imdad [18]. Following Popa's approach, many results on fixed point, common fixed point and coincidence point has been obtained, in various ambient spaces, see [1625] and references therein.

In [21], Berinde obtained some constructive fixed point theorems for almost contractions satisfying an implicit relation. These results unify, extend, generalize related results (see [2, 3, 716, 21, 2538]).

In this article we obtain, in the setting of metric spaces or ordered metric spaces, coincidence point, and common fixed point results for self-mappings in a general class of contractions defined by an implicit relation. Our results unify, extend, generalize many of related common fixed point theorems from literature.

Let X be a non-empty set and f, T: X → X. A point x X is called a coincidence point of f and T if Tx = fx. The mappings f and T are said to be weakly compatible if they commute at their coincidence point (i.e., Tfx = fTx whenever Tx = fx). Suppose TX fX. For every x0 X we consider the sequence {x n } X defined by fx n = Txn-1for all n , we say that {Tx n } is a T -f -sequence with initial point x0.

Let X be a non-empty set. If (X, d) is a metric space and (X, ) is partially ordered, then (X, d, ) is called an ordered metric space. Then, x, y X are called comparable if x y or y x holds. Let f, T: X → X be two mappings, T is said to be f -non-decreasing if fx fy implies Tx Ty for all x, y X. If f is the identity mapping on X, then T is non-decreasing.

Throughout this article the letters + and will denote the set of all non-negative real numbers and the set of all positive integer numbers.

Fixed point theorems for mappings satisfying an implicit relation

A simple and natural way to unify and prove in a simple manner several metrical fixed point theorems is to consider an implicit contraction type condition instead of the usual explicit contractive conditions. Popa [16, 17] initiated this direction of research which produced so far a consistent literature (that cannot be completely cited here) on fixed point, common fixed point, and coincidence point theorems, for both single-valued and multi-valued mappings, in various ambient spaces; see the recent nice paper [21] of Berinde, for a partial list of references.

In [21], Berinde considered the family of all continuous real functions F : + 6 + and the following conditions:

(F1a) F is non-increasing in the fifth variable and F (u, v, v, u, u + v, 0) 0 for u, v ≥ 0 implies that there exists h [0, 1) such that u ≤ hv;

(F1b) F is non-increasing in the fourth variable and F (u, v, 0, u + v, u, v) 0 for u, v ≥ 0 implies that there exists h [0, 1) such that u ≤ hv;

(F1c) F is non-increasing in the third variable and F (u, v, u+v, 0, v, u) 0 for u, v ≥ 0 implies that there exists h [0, 1) such that u ≤ hv;

(F2) F (u, u, 0, 0, u, u) > 0, for all u > 0.

He gave many examples of functions corresponding to well-known fixed point theorems and satisfying most of the conditions (F1a)-(F2) above, see Examples 1-11 of [21].

Example 1. The following functions F F satisfy properties F2 and F1a-F1c(see Examples 1-6, 9, and 11 of [21]).
  1. (i)

    F (t1, t2, t3, t4, t5, t6) = t1 − at2, where a [0, 1);

     
  2. (ii)

    F (t1, t2, t3, t4, t5, t6) = t1 − b(t3 + t4), where b [0, 1/ 2);

     
  3. (iii)

    F (t1, t2, t3, t4, t5, t6) = t1 − c(t5 + t6), where c [0, 1/ 2);

     
  4. (iv)

    F ( t 1 , t 2 , t 3 , t 4 , t 5 , t 6 ) = t 1 - a max { t 2 , t 3 + t 4 2 , t 5 + t 6 2 } , where a [0, 1);

     
  5. (v)

    F (t1, t2, t3, t4, t5, t6) = t1 − at2 − b(t3 + t4) − c(t5 + t6), where a, b, c [0, 1) and a + 2b + 2c < 1;

     
  6. (vi)

    F ( t 1 , t 2 , t 3 , t 4 , t 5 , t 6 ) = t 1 - a max { t 2 , t 3 + t 4 2 , t 5 , t 6 } , where a [0, 1);

     
  7. (vii)

    F (t1, t2, t3, t4, t5, t6) = t1 − at2 − L min{t3, t4, t5, t6}, where a [0, 1);

     
  8. (viii)

    F ( t 1 , t 2 , t 3 , t 4 , t 5 , t 6 ) = t 1 - a max { t 2 , t 3 , t 4 , t 5 + t 6 2 } - L min { t 3 , t 4 , t 5 , t 6 } , where a [0, 1) and L ≥ 0.

     
Example 2. The function F F , given by
F ( t 1 , t 2 , t 3 , t 4 , t 5 , t 6 ) = t 1 - a max { t 2 , t 3 , t 4 , t 5 , t 6 } ,

where a [0, 1/ 2) satisfies properties F2 and F1a-F1cwith h = a 1 - a < 1 .

Motivated by [21], the following theorem is one of the main results in this article.

Theorem 1. Let (X, d) be a metric space and T, f: X → X be self-mappings such that TX fX. Assume that there exists F F , satisfying (F1a), such that for all x, y X
F ( d ( T x , T y ) , d ( f x , f y ) , d ( f x , T x ) , d ( f y , T y ) , d ( f x , T y ) , d ( f y , T x ) ) 0 .
(1)

If fX is a complete subspace of X, then T and f have a coincidence point. Moreover, if T and f are weakly compatible and F satisfies also F2, then T and f have a unique common fixed point. Further, for any x0 X, the T-f-sequence {Tx n } with initial point x0 converges to the common fixed point.

Proof. Let x0 X be an arbitrary point. As TX fX, one can choose a T-f-sequence {Tx n } with initial point x0. If we take x = x n and y = xn+1in (1) and denote with u = d(Tx n , Txn+1) and v = d(Txn-1, Tx n ) we get that
F ( u , v , v , u , d ( T x n - 1 , T x n + 1 ) , 0 ) 0 .
By triangle inequality, d(Txn-1, Txn+1) ≤ d(Txn-1, Tx n ) + d(Tx n , Txn+1) = u + v and, since F is non-increasing in the fifth variable, we have
F ( u , v , v , u , u + v , 0 ) 0
and hence, in view of assumption (F1a), there exists h [0, 1) such that u ≤ hv, i.e.,
d ( T x n , T x n + 1 ) h d ( T x n - 1 , T x n ) for all n .
(2)
By (2), in a straightforward way, we deduce that {Tx n } is a Cauchy sequence. Since fX is complete, there exist z, w X such that z = fw and
lim n + T x n = lim n + f x n = f w = z .
(3)
By taking x = x n and y = w in (1), we obtain that
F ( d ( T x n , T w ) , d ( f x n , f w ) , d ( f x n , T x n ) , d ( f w , T w ) , d ( f x n , T w ) , d ( f w , T x n ) ) 0 .
(4)
As F is continuous, using (3) and letting n → + in (4), we get
F ( d ( f w , T w ) , d ( f w , f w ) , d ( f w , f w ) , d ( f w , T w ) , d ( f w , T w ) , d ( f w , f w ) ) 0

which, by assumption (F1a), yields d(fw, Tw) 0, i.e., fw = Tw = z. Thus, we have proved that T and f have a coincidence point.

Now, we assume that T and f are weakly compatible, then fz = fTw = Tfw = Tz.

We show that Tz = z = Tw.

Suppose d(Tz, Tw) > 0, by taking x = z and y = w in (1), we get
F ( d ( T z , T w ) , d ( f z , f w ) , d ( f z , T z ) , d ( f w , T w ) , d ( f z , T w ) , d ( f w , T z ) ) 0 ,
i.e.,
F ( d ( T z , T w ) , d ( T z , T w ) , 0 , 0 , d ( T z , T w ) , d ( T z , T w ) ) 0 ,

which is a contradiction by assumption (F2). This implies that d(Tz, Tw) = 0 and hence fz = Tz = Tw = z. So T and f have a common fixed point.

The uniqueness of the common fixed point is a consequence of assumption (F2). Clearly, for any x0 X, the T-f-sequence {Tx n } with initial point x0 converges to the unique common fixed point. □

Remark 1. From (2) we deduce the unifying error estimate
d ( T x n + i 1 , z ) h i 1 h d ( T x n 1 , T x n ) .
From this we get both the a priori estimate
d ( T x n , z ) h n 1 h d ( T x 0 , T x 1 ) , n = 1 , 2 ,
and the a posteriori estimate
d ( T x n , z ) h 1 h d ( T x n 1 , T x n ) , n = 1 , 2 ,

which are extremely important in applications, especially when approximating the solutions of nonlinear equations.

If f = I X from Theorem 1, we deduce the following result of fixed point for one self-mapping, see [21].

Corollary 1. Let (X, d) be a complete metric space and T: X → X. Assume that there exists, F F satisfying (F1a), such that for all x, y X
F ( d ( T x , T y ) , d ( x , y ) , d ( x , T x ) , d ( y , T y ) , d ( x , T y ) , d ( y , T x ) ) 0 .

Then T has a fixed point. Moreover, if F satisfies also F2, then T has a unique fixed point. Further, for any x0 X, the Picard sequence {T n x0} with initial point x0 converges to the fixed point.

Common fixed point in ordered metric spaces

The existence of fixed points in ordered metric spaces was investigated by Turinici [39], Ran and Reurings [40], Nieto and Rodríguez-López [41]. See, also [4245], and references therein. A common fixed point result in ordered metric spaces for mappings satisfying implicit contractive conditions is given by the next theorem.

Theorem 2. Let (X, d, ) be a complete ordered metric space and T, f: X → X be self-mappings such that TX fX. Assume that there exists F F , satisfying (F1a), such that for all x, y X with fx fy
F ( d ( T x , T y ) , d ( f x , f y ) , d ( f x , T x ) , d ( f y , T y ) , d ( f x , T y ) , d ( f y , T x ) ) 0 .
(5)
If the following conditions hold:
  1. (i)

    there exists x0 X such that fx0 Tx0;

     
  2. (ii)

    T is f-non-decreasing;

     
  3. (iii)

    for a non-decreasing sequence {fx n } X converging to fw X, we have fx n fw for all n and fw f fw;

     
then T and f have a coincidence point in X. Moreover, if
  1. (iv)

    T and f are weakly compatible;

     
  2. (v)

    F satisfies also F2,

     

then T and f have a common fixed point. Further, for any x0 X, the T-f-sequence {Tx n } with initial point x0 converges to a common fixed point.

Proof. Let x0 X such that fx0 Tx0 and let {Tx n } be a T-f-sequence with initial point x0. Since fx0 Tx0 and Tx0 = fx1, we have fx0 fx1. As T is f-non-decreasing we get that Tx0 Tx1. Continuing this process we obtain
f x 0 T x 0 = f x 1 T x 1 = f x 2 T x n = f x n + 1 .
In what follows we will suppose that d(Tx n , Txn+1) > 0 for all n , since if Tx n = Txn+1for some n, then fxn+1= Tx n = Txn+1. This implies that xn+1is a coincidence point for T and f and the result is proved. As fx n fxn+1for all n , if we take x = x n and y = xn+1in (5) and denote u = d(Tx n , Txn+1) and v = d(Txn- 1, Tx n ) we get that
F ( u , v , v , u , d ( T x n - 1 , T x n + 1 ) , 0 ) 0 .
By triangle inequality, d(Txn-1, Txn+1) ≤ d(Txn-1, Tx n ) + d(Tx n , Txn+1) = u + v and, since F is non-increasing in the fifth variable, we have
F ( u , v , v , u , u + v , 0 ) 0
and hence, in view of assumption (F1a), there exists h [0, 1) such that u ≤ hv, i.e.,
d ( T x n , T x n + 1 ) h d ( T x n - 1 , T x n ) .
(6)
By (6), we deduce that {Tx n } is a Cauchy sequence. Since (X, d) is complete, there exist z, w X such that z = fw and
lim n + T x n = lim n + f x n = f w = z .
(7)
By condition (iii), fx n fw for all n , if we take x = x n and y = w in (5) we get
F ( d ( T x n , T w ) , d ( f x n , f w ) , d ( f x n , T x n ) , d ( f w , T w ) , d ( f x n , T w ) , d ( f w , T x n ) 0.
As F is continuous, using (7) and letting n → + we obtain
F ( d ( f w , T w ) , d ( f w , f w ) , d ( f w , f w ) , d ( f w , T w ) , d ( f w , T w ) , d ( f w , f w ) ) 0

which, by assumption (F1a), yields d(fw, Tw) 0, i.e., fw = Tw. Thus we have proved that T and f have a coincidence point.

If T and f are weakly compatible we show that z is a common fixed point for T and f . As fz = fTw = Tfw = Tz, by condition (iii), we have that fw f fw = fz.

Now, by taking x = w and y = z in (5) we get
F ( d ( T w , T z ) , d ( f w , f z ) , d ( f w , T w ) , d ( f z , T z ) , d ( f w , T z ) , d ( f z , T w ) ) 0 .

Assumption (F2) implies d(Tz, Tw) = 0 and hence fz = Tz = Tw = z. So T and f have a common fixed point. From the proof it follows that, for any x0 X, the T -f -sequence {Tx n } with initial point x0 converges to a common fixed point. □

We shall give a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the common fixed point in Theorem 2.

Theorem 3. Let all the conditions of Theorem 2 be satisfied. If the following conditions hold
  1. (vi)

    for all x, y fX there exists v0 X such that fv0 x, fv0 y;

     
  2. (vii)

    F satisfies F1c,

     

then T and f have a unique common fixed point.

Proof. Let z, w be two common fixed points of T and f with zw. If z and w are comparable, say z y. Then taking x = z and y = w in (5), we obtain
F ( d ( T z , T w ) , d ( f z , f w ) , d ( f z , T z ) , d ( f w , T w ) , d ( f z , T w ) , d ( f w , T z ) ) 0 ,

which is a contradiction by assumption (F2) and so z = w.

If z and w are not comparable, then there exists v0 X such that fv0 fz = z and fv0 fw = w.

As T is f -non-decreasing from fv0 fz we get that
f v 1 = T v 0 T z = f z .
Continuing we obtain
f v n + 1 = T v n T z = f z for all n .
Then, taking x = v n and y = z in (5) we obtain
F ( d ( T v n , T z ) , d ( f v n , f z ) , d ( f v n , T v n ) , d ( f z , T z ) , d ( f v n , T z ) , d ( f z , T v n ) ) 0 ,
i.e.,
F ( d ( T v n , T z ) , d ( T v n - 1 , T z ) , d ( T v n - 1 , T v n ) , d ( f z , T z ) , d ( T v n - 1 , T z ) , d ( T z , T v n ) ) 0 .
Denote u = d(Tv n , Tz) and v = d(Tvn-1, Tz). As F is non-increasing in the third variable, we get
F ( u , v , u + v , 0 , v , u ) 0 .
By assumption F1c, there exists h [0, 1) such that u ≤ hv, i.e.,
d ( T v n , T z ) h d ( T v n - 1 , T z ) , for all n .

This implies that d(Tv n , Tz) = d(Tv n , z) 0 as n → +.

With similar arguments, we deduce that d(Tv n , w) 0 as n → +. Hence
0 < d ( w , z ) d ( w , T v n ) + d ( T v n , z ) 0

as n → +, which is a contradiction. Thus T and f have a unique common fixed point. □

If f = I X from Theorems 2 and 3, we deduce the following results of fixed point for one self-mapping.

Corollary 2. Let (X, d, ) be a complete ordered metric space and T: X → X. Assume that there exists F F , satisfying (F1a), such that for all x, y X with x y
F ( d ( T x , T y ) , d ( x , y ) , d ( x , T x ) , d ( y , T y ) , d ( x , T y ) , d ( y , T x ) ) 0 .
(8)
If the following conditions hold:
  1. (i)

    there exists x0 X such that x0 Tx0;

     
  2. (ii)

    T is non-decreasing;

     
  3. (iii)

    for a non-decreasing sequence {x n } X converging to w X, we have x n w for all n ,

     

then T has a fixed point in X. Further, for any x0 X, the Picard sequence {T n x0} with initial point x0 converges to a fixed point.

Corollary 3. Let all the conditions of Corollary 2 be satisfied. If the following conditions hold
  1. (v)

    F satisfies F 2 ;

     
  2. (vi)

    for all x, y X there exists v0 X such that v0 x, v0 y;

     
  3. (vii)

    F satisfies F1c,

     

then T has a unique fixed point.

If F is the function in Example 2, then by Theorem 3 we obtain a fixed point theorem that extends the result of Theorem 3 of [44].

Declarations

Acknowledgements

The first author research's was supported by the Grant PN-II-RU-TE-2011-3-239 of the Romanian Ministry of Education and and Research.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Sciences, North University of Baia Mare

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Copyright

© Berinde; licensee Springer. 2012

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