Nielsen number and differential equations
© Andres 2005
Received: 19 July 2004
Published: 30 June 2005
In reply to a problem of Jean Leray (application of the Nielsen theory to differential equations), two main approaches are presented. The first is via Poincaré's translation operator, while the second one is based on the Hammerstein-type solution operator. The applicability of various Nielsen theories is discussed with respect to several sorts of differential equations and inclusions. Links with the Sharkovskii-like theorems (a finite number of periodic solutions imply infinitely many subharmonics) are indicated, jointly with some further consequences like the nontrivial -structure of solutions of initial value problems. Some illustrating examples are supplied and open problems are formulated.