Results on the Existence and Convergence of Best Proximity Points
© A. Abkar and M. Gabeleh. 2010
Received: 24 February 2010
Accepted: 10 June 2010
Published: 6 July 2010
We first consider a cyclic -contraction map on a reflexive Banach space and provide a positive answer to a question raised by Al-Thagafi and Shahzad on the existence of best proximity points for cyclic -contraction maps in reflexive Banach spaces in one of their works (2009). In the second part of the paper, we will discuss the existence of best proximity points in the framework of more general metric spaces. We obtain some new results on the existence of best proximity points in hyperconvex metric spaces as well as in ultrametric spaces.
Let be a metric space, and let be two subsets of . A mapping is said to be cyclic provided that and . In  Kirk et al. proved the following interesting extension of the Banach contraction principle:
Theorem 1.1 (see ).
Later on, Eldred and Veeramani  considered the class of cyclic contractions.
Definition 1.2 (see ).
Theorem 1.3 (see ).
Definition 1.4 (see ).
In  the authors were able to establish some existence and convergence results for these mappings. Moreover, they proved the existence of a best proximity point for a cyclic contraction map in a reflexive Banach space (see [3, Theorems , ]). In this way they answered a question raised by Eldred and Veeramani in the affirmative. We recall that Theorem 1.3 above was proved in the setting of a uniformly convex Banach space. The authors of  then asked if the result stands true if we assume that is a reflexive Banach space, rather than being uniformly convex.
Al-Thagafi and N. Shahzad then stated it was interesting to ask whether Theorems and (resp., Theorems and ) held true for cyclic -contraction maps when the Banach space in question is only reflexive (resp., reflexive and strictly convex).
In this paper we first take up these questions. It turns out that under some conditions the answer is positive. In the last section we study the existence of best proximity points in spherically complete ultrametric spaces, as well as in hyperconvex metric spaces. More precisely, we will see that best proximity points exist for cyclic -contraction maps on hyperconvex metric spaces. We will also provide an existence theorem for a cyclic map which satisfies some contractive condition on an ultrametric space.
In this section we first provide a positive answer to the question raised by the authors of . Then we present some consequences and applications. Among other things, is a common fixed point theorem for two maps. We will begin with the following lemma.
Lemma 2.1 (see [3, Lemma ]).
Now we state and prove the following lemma which is key to the proof of the main result of this section.
We now come to the first main result of this paper generalizing Theorem of  to cyclic -contraction maps.
If we assume that the function satisfies either of the conditions (i) or (ii) of Lemma 2.2, then all three theorems (Theorems , 11, and 12 of  can be generalized to cyclic -contraction maps. We omit the details.
Let and be two nonempty subsets of a reflexive Banach space such that is weakly closed. Let be a cyclic -contraction map which is weakly continuous on . For , define for each . If then has a unique fixed point and .
As in the proof of Theorem 2.3 we conclude that . The proof of uniqueness part is a verbatim repetition of the proof of Theorem in . We omit the details.
As an application of Theorem 2.5, we will prove a theorem on the existence and approximation of common fixed points for two maps.
Let be a nonempty subset of a reflexive Banach space and be two maps such that is weakly closed in and . Let be a cyclic -contraction map that satisfies this property that if there exist such that , then commutes with in . Then have a common fixed point in . Moreover, if , and for each then the sequence converges to a common fixed point of .
That is, is a fixed point for . Since the fixed point of is unique, we must have . Therefore is a fixed point of . Similarly we can show that is a fixed point of . Consequently is a common fixed point for . According to Theorem 2.5 the sequence converges to .
Let and . Let and define with and . Also consider by . Then is cyclic contraction and satisfies the conditions of Theorem 2.6. Therefore have a common fixed point. It is clear that this common fixed point is .
In this section we discuss the existence of best proximity points for cyclic -contraction maps in metric spaces. Indeed we prove two existence theorems on best proximity points in hyperconvex spaces, as well as in ultrametric spaces.
In the following definition we will use the notation for the Kuratowski measure of noncompactness of a given set . For more information see the book written by Khamsi and Kirk .
Definition 3.3 (see ).
We recall that for a given set , the notation denotes the family of all admissible subsets of , that is, the family of subsets of that can be written as the intersection of a family of closed balls centered at points of . For further information on the subject we refer the reader to . We now state and prove the first main result of this section.
Since is a hyperconvex metric space, and since , it follows from Proposition of  that is a hyperconvex metric space too. On the other hand, is a condensing map, thus by Theorem of , or has a fixed point. It now follows from Lemma 3.1 that has a best proximity point.
For example if is a discrete metric space then is an ultrametric space. Ultrametric spaces arise in the study of non-Archimedean analysis, and in particular in the study of Banach space over non-Archimedean valuation fields (see ).
which is a contradiction.
After the appearance of this paper on the current journal home page, the authors have been informed by Nasser Shahzad and Shahram Rezapour that they already published paper , answering a question raised by the authors of . The current authors would like to thank them for this piece of information.
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