 Research Article
 Open Access
 Published:
On Two Iterative Methods for Mixed Monotone Variational Inequalities
Fixed Point Theory and Applications volume 2010, Article number: 291851 (2009)
Abstract
A mixed monotone variational inequality (MMVI) problem in a Hilbert space is formulated to find a point such that for all , where is a monotone operator and is a proper, convex, and lower semicontinuous function on . Iterative algorithms are usually applied to find a solution of an MMVI problem. We show that the iterative algorithm introduced in the work of Wang et al., (2001) has in general weak convergence in an infinitedimensional space, and the algorithm introduced in the paper of Noor (2001) fails in general to converge to a solution.
1. Introduction
Let be a real Hilbert space with inner product and norm and let be an operator with domain and range in . Recall that is monotone if its graph is a monotone set in . This means that is monotone if and only if
A monotone operator is maximal monotone if its graph is not properly contained in the graph of any other monotone operator on .
Let be a proper, convex, and lower semicontinuous functional. Thesubdifferential of is defined by
It is well known (cf. [1]) that is a maximal monotone operator.
Themixed monotone variational inequality (MMVI) problem is to find a point with the property
where is a monotone operator and is a proper, convex, and lower semicontinuous function on .
If one takes to be the indicator of a closed convex subset of ,
then the MMVI (1.3) is reduced to the classical variational inequality (VI):
Recall that theresolvent of a monotone operator is defined as
If , we write for It is known that is monotone if and only of for each the resolvent is nonexpansive, and is maximal monotone if and only of for each , the resolvent is nonexpansive and defined on the entire space . Recall that a selfmapping of a closed convex subset of is said to be
(i)nonexpansive if for all ;
(ii)firmly nonexpansive if for . Equivalently, is firmly nonexpansive if and only of is nonexpansive. It is known that each resolvent of a monotone operator is firmly nonexpansive.
We use to denote the set of fixed points of ; that is, .
Variational inequalities have extensively been studied; see the monographs by Baiocchi and Capelo [2], Cottle et al. [3], Glowinski et al. [4], Giannessi and Maugeri [5], and Kinderlehrer and Stampacciha [6].
Iterative methods play an important role in solving variational inequalities. For example, if is a singlevalued, strongly monotone (i.e., for all and some ), and Lipschitzian (i.e., for some and all ) operator on , then the sequence generated by the iterative algorithm
where is the identity operator and is the metric projection of onto , and the initial guess is chosen arbitrarily, converges strongly to the unique solution of VI (1.5) provided, is small enough.
2. An Inexact Implicit Method
In this section we study the convergence of an inexact implicit method for solving the MMVI (1.3) introduced by Wang et al. [7] (see also [8, 9] for related work).
Let and be two sequences of nonnegative numbers such that
Let and . The inexact implicit method introduced in [7] generates a sequence defined in the following way. Once has been constructed, the next iterate is implicitly constructed satisfying the equation
where is a sequence of nonnegative numbers such that
for , and for and ,
and where is such that
with given as follows:
We note that is a solution of the MMVI (1.3) if and only if, for each , satisfies the fixed point equation
Before discussing the convergence of the implicit algorithm (2.2), we look at a special case of (2.2), where . In this case, the MMVI (1.3) reduces to the problem of finding a such that
in another word, finding an absolute minimizer of over . This is equivalent to solving the inclusion
and the algorithm (2.2) is thus reduced to a special case of the EckasteinBertsekas algorithm [10]
where If , then algorithm (2.2) is reduced to a special case of Rockafellar's proximal point algorithm [11]
Rockafellar's proximal point algorithm for finding a zero of a maximal monotone operator has received tremendous investigations; see [12–14] and the references therein.
Remark 2.1.
Theorem 5.1 of Wang et al. [7] holds true only in the finitedimensional setting. This is because in the infinitedimensional setting, a bounded sequence fails, in general, to have a normconvergent subsequence. As a matter of fact, in the infinitedimensional case, the special case of (2.2) where and corresponds to Rockafellar's proximal point algorithm (2.11) which fails to converge in the norm topology, in general, in the infinitedimensional setting; see Güler's counterexample [15]. This infinitedimensionality problem occurred in several papers by Noor (see, e.g., [16–26]).
In the infinitedimensional setting, whether or not Wang et al.'s implicit algorithm (2.2) converges even in the weak topology remains an open question. We will provide a partial answer by showing that if the operator is weaktostrong continuous (i.e., takes weakly convergent sequences to strongly convergent sequences), then the implicit algorithm (2.2) does converge weakly.
We next collect the (correct) results proved in [7].
Proposition 2.2.
Assume that is generated by the implicit algorithm (2.2).
(a)For , is a nondecreasing function of .

(b)
If is a solution to the MMVI (1.3), and , then
(2.12)
(c)For any solution to the MMVI (1.3),
where satisfies .
(d) is bounded.
(e)There is a such that
Since algorithm (2.2) is, in general, not strongly convergent, we turn to investigate its weak convergence. It is however unclear if the algorithm is weakly convergent (if the space is infinite dimensional). We present a partial answer below. But first recall that an operator is said to be weaktostrong continuous if the weak convergence of a sequence to a point implies the strong convergence of the sequence to the point .
Theorem 2.3.
Assume that is generated by algorithm (2.2). If is weaktostrong continuous, then converges weakly to a solution of the MMVI (1.3).
Proof.
Putting
we have
It follows that
This implies that
So, if weakly (hence strongly since is weaktostrong continuous), it follows that
Thus, is a solution.
To prove that the entire sequence of is weakly convergent, assume that weakly. All we have to prove is that . Passing through further subsequences if necessary, we may assume that and both exist.
For , since strongly and since and are bounded, there exists an integer such that, for
It follows that for ,
This implies
However,
It follows that
Similarly, by repeating the argument above we obtain
Adding these inequalities, we get .
3. A Counterexample
It is not hard to see that solves MMVI (1.3) if and only of solves the inclusion
which is in turn equivalent to the fixed point equation
where is the resolvent of defined by
Recall that if is the indicator of a closed convex subset of ,
then MMVI (1.3) is reduced to the classical variational inequality (VI)
In [27], Noor introduced a new iterative algorithm [27, Algorithm 3.3, page 36] as follows. Given , compute by the iterative scheme
where and are constant, and is given by
Noor [27] proved a convergence result for his algorithm (3.6) as follows.
Theorem 3.1 (see [27, page 38]).
Let be a finitedimensional Hilbert space. Then the sequence generated by algorithm (3.6) converges to a solution of MMVI (1.3).
We however found that the conclusion stated in the above theorem is incorrect. It is true that solves MMVI (1.3) if and only if solves the fixed point equation (3.2). The reason that led Noor to his mistake is his claim that solves MMVI (1.3) if and only if solves the following iterated fixed point equation:
As a matter of fact, the two fixed point equations (3.2) and (3.8) are not equivalent, as shown in the following counterexample which also shows that the convergence result of Noor [27] is incorrect.
Example 3.2.
Take . Define and by
Notice that (Clarke [28])
It is easily seen that is the unique solution to the MMVI
Observe that equation is equivalent to the fixed point equation
Now since for all , we get that solves (3.12) if and only if
where
It follows from (3.13) that . Hence
But, since
we deduce that the solution set of the fixed point equation (3.12) is given by
(We therefore conclude that equation is not equivalent to MMVI (1.3), as claimed by Noor [27].)
Now take the initial guess for . Then and we have that algorithm (3.6) generates a constant sequence for all . However, is not a solution of MMVI (3.11). This shows that algorithm (3.6) may generate a sequence that fails to converge to a solution of MMVI (1.3) and Noor's result in [27] is therefore false.
Remark 3.3.
Noor has repeated his above mistake in a number of his recent articles. A partial search found that articles [20, 21, 26, 29–32] contain the same error.
References
 1.
Brezis H: Operateurs Maximaux Monotones et SemiGroups de Contraction dans les Espaces de Hilbert. NorthHolland, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 1973.
 2.
Baiocchi C, Capelo A: Variational and Quasivariational Inequalities: Applications to Free Boundary Problems, A WileyInterscience Publication. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA; 1984:ix+452.
 3.
Cottle RW, Giannessi F, Lions JL: Variational Inequalities and Complementarity Problems: Theory and Applications. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA; 1980.
 4.
Glowinski R, Lions JL, Trémolières R: Numerical Analysis of Variational Inequalities, Studies in Mathematics and Its Applications. Volume 8. NorthHolland, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 1981:xxix+776.
 5.
Giannessi F, Maugeri A: Variational Inequalities and Network Equilibrium Problems. Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA; 1995.
 6.
Kinderlehrer D, Stampacchia G: An Introduction to Variational Inequalities and Their Applications, Pure and Applied Mathematics. Volume 88. Academic Press, New York, NY, USA; 1980:xiv+313.
 7.
Wang SL, Yang H, He B: Inexact implicit method with variable parameter for mixed monotone variational inequalities. Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications 2001,111(2):431–443. 10.1023/A:1011942620208
 8.
He B: Inexact implicit methods for monotone general variational inequalities. Mathematical Programming 1999,86(1):199–217. 10.1007/s101070050086
 9.
Han D, He B: A new accuracy criterion for approximate proximal point algorithms. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2001,263(2):343–354. 10.1006/jmaa.2001.7535
 10.
Eckstein J, Bertsekas DP: On the DouglasRachford splitting method and the proximal point algorithm for maximal monotone operators. Mathematical Programming 1992,55(3):293–318. 10.1007/BF01581204
 11.
Rockafellar RT: Monotone operators and the proximal point algorithm. SIAM Journal on Control and Optimization 1976,14(5):877–898. 10.1137/0314056
 12.
Solodov MV, Svaiter BF: Forcing strong convergence of proximal point iterations in a Hilbert space. Mathematical Programming, Series A 2000,87(1):189–202.
 13.
Xu HK: Iterative algorithms for nonlinear operators. Journal of the London Mathematical Society 2002,66(1):240–256. 10.1112/S0024610702003332
 14.
Marino G, Xu HK: Convergence of generalized proximal point algorithms. Communications on Pure and Applied Analysis 2004,3(4):791–808.
 15.
Güler O: On the convergence of the proximal point algorithm for convex minimization. SIAM Journal on Control and Optimization 1991,29(2):403–419. 10.1137/0329022
 16.
Noor MA: Monotone mixed variational inequalities. Applied Mathematics Letters 2001,14(2):231–236. 10.1016/S08939659(00)001415
 17.
Noor MA: An implicit method for mixed variational inequalities. Applied Mathematics Letters 1998,11(4):109–113. 10.1016/S08939659(98)000664
 18.
Noor MA: A modified projection method for monotone variational inequalities. Applied Mathematics Letters 1999,12(5):83–87. 10.1016/S08939659(99)000610
 19.
Noor MA: Some iterative techniques for general monotone variational inequalities. Optimization 1999,46(4):391–401. 10.1080/02331939908844464
 20.
Noor MA: Some algorithms for general monotone mixed variational inequalities. Mathematical and Computer Modelling 1999,29(7):1–9. 10.1016/S08957177(99)000588
 21.
Noor MA: Splitting algorithms for general pseudomonotone mixed variational inequalities. Journal of Global Optimization 2000,18(1):75–89. 10.1023/A:1008322118873
 22.
Noor MA: An iterative method for general mixed variational inequalities. Computers & Mathematics with Applications 2000,40(2–3):171–176. 10.1016/S08981221(00)001516
 23.
Noor MA: Splitting methods for pseudomonotone mixed variational inequalities. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2000,246(1):174–188. 10.1006/jmaa.2000.6776
 24.
Noor MA: A class of new iterative methods for general mixed variational inequalities. Mathematical and Computer Modelling 2000,31(13):11–19. 10.1016/S08957177(00)001084
 25.
Noor MA: Solvability of multivalued general mixed variational inequalities. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2001,261(1):390–402. 10.1006/jmaa.2001.7533
 26.
Noor MA, AlSaid EA: WienerHopf equations technique for quasimonotone variational inequalities. Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications 1999,103(3):705–714. 10.1023/A:1021796326831
 27.
Noor MA: Iterative schemes for quasimonotone mixed variational inequalities. Optimization 2001,50(1–2):29–44. 10.1080/02331930108844552
 28.
Clarke FH: Optimization and Nonsmooth Analysis, Classics in Applied Mathematics. Volume 5. 2nd edition. SIAM, Philadelphia, Pa, USA; 1990:xii+308.
 29.
Noor MA: An extraresolvent method for monotone mixed variational inequalities. Mathematical and Computer Modelling 1999,29(3):95–100. 10.1016/S08957177(99)000333
 30.
Noor MA: A modified extragradient method for general monotone variational inequalities. Computers & Mathematics with Applications 1999,38(1):19–24. 10.1016/S08981221(99)001649
 31.
Noor MA: Projection type methods for general variational inequalities. Soochow Journal of Mathematics 2002,28(2):171–178.
 32.
Noor MA: Modified projection method for pseudomonotone variational inequalities. Applied Mathematics Letters 2002,15(3):315–320. 10.1016/S08939659(01)001379
Acknowledgments
The authors are grateful to the anonymous referees for their comments and suggestions which improved the presentation of this manuscript. This paper is dedicated to Professor Wataru Takahashi on the occasion of his retirement. The second author supported in part by NSC 972628M110003MY3, and by DGES MTM200613997C0201.
Author information
Rights and permissions
About this article
Received
Accepted
Published
DOI
Keywords
 Variational Inequality
 Convergence Result
 Monotone Operator
 Maximal Monotone
 Maximal Monotone Operator