# A New Approximation Scheme Combining the Viscosity Method with Extragradient Method for Mixed Equilibrium Problems

- Jian-Wen Peng
^{1}Email author and - Soon-Yi Wu
^{2}

**2009**:257089

https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/257089

© J.-W. Peng and S.-Y.Wu. 2009

**Received: **8 November 2009

**Accepted: **6 December 2009

**Published: **12 January 2010

## Abstract

We introduce a new approximation scheme combining the viscosity method with extragradient method for finding a common element of the set of solutions of a mixed equilibrium problem and the set of fixed points of a finite family of nonexpansive mappings and the set of the variational inequality for a monotone, Lipschitz continuous mapping. We obtain a strong convergence theorem for the sequences generated by these processes in Hilbert spaces. Based on this result, we also get some new and interesting results. The results in this paper generalize, extend, and improve some well-known results in the literature.

## 1. Introduction

Let be a real Hilbert space with inner product and induced norm and let be a nonempty closed convex subset of . Let be a function and let be a bifunction from to , where is the set of real numbers. Ceng and Yao [1] and Bigi et al. [2] considered the following mixed equilibrium problem:

The set of solutions of (1.1) is denoted by . It is easy to see that is a solution of problem (1.1) implies that .

If , then the mixed equilibrium problem (1.1) becomes the following equilibrium problem:

The set of solutions of (1.2) is denoted by .

If for all , the mixed equilibrium problem (1.1) becomes the following minimization problem:

The set of solutions of (1.3) is denoted by .

The problem (1.1) is very general in the sense that it includes, as special cases, optimization problems, variational inequalities, minimax problems, Nash equilibrium problem in noncooperative games, and others; see, for instance, [1–4].

Recall that a mapping of a closed convex subset into itself is nonexpansive [5] if there holds that

We denote the set of fixed points of by . Ceng and Yao [1] introduced an iterative scheme for finding a common element of the set of solutions of problem (1.1) and the set of common fixed points of a finite family of nonexpansive mappings in a Hilbert space and obtained a strong convergence theorem.

Some methods have been proposed to solve the problem (1.2); see, for instance, [3, 4, 6–12] and the references therein. Recently, Combettes and Hirstoaga [6] introduced an iterative scheme of finding the best approximation to the initial data when is nonempty and proved a strong convergence theorem. Takahashi and Takahashi [7] introduced an iterative scheme by the viscosity approximation method for finding a common element of the set of solutions of problem (1.2) and the set of fixed points of a nonexpansive mapping in a Hilbert space and proved a strong convergence theorem. Su et al. [8] introduced the following iterative scheme by the viscosity approximation method for finding a common element of the set of solutions of problem (1.2) and the set of fixed points of a nonexpansive mapping and the set of solutions of the variational inequality problem for an -inverse strongly monotone mapping in a Hilbert space. Starting with an arbitrary , define sequences and by

They proved that under certain appropriate conditions imposed on , , and , the sequences and generated by (1.5) converge strongly to , where . Tada and Takahashi [9] introduced two iterative schemes for finding a common element of the set of solutions of problem (1.2) and the set of fixed points of a nonexpansive mapping in a Hilbert space and obtained both strong convergence theorem and weak convergence theorem.

On the other hand, for solving the variational inequality problem in the finite-dimensional Euclidean , Korpelevich [13] introduced the following so-called extragradient method:

for every where . She showed that if is nonempty, then the sequences and , generated by (1.6), converge to the same point . The idea of the extragradient iterative process introduced by Korpelevich was successfully generalized and extended not only in Euclidean but also in Hilbert and Banach spaces; see, for example, the recent papers of He et al. [14], Gárciga Otero and Iuzem [15], and Solodov and Svaiter [16], Solodov [17]. Moreover, Zeng and Yao [18] and Nadezhkina and Takahashi [19] introduced iterative processes based on the extragradient method for finding the common element of the set of fixed points of nonexpansive mappings and the set of solutions of variational inequality problem for a monotone, Lipschitz continuous mapping. Yao and Yao [20] introduced an iterative process based on the extragradient method for finding the common element of the set of fixed points of nonexpansive mappings and the set of solutions of variational inequality problem for an -inverse strongly monotone mapping. Plubtieng and Punpaeng [11] introduced an iterative process based on the extragradient method for finding the common element of the set of fixed points of nonexpansive mappings, the set of solutions of an equilibrium problem, and the set of solutions of variational inequality problem for -inverse strongly monotone mappings. Chang et al. [12] introduced some iterative processes based on the extragradient method for finding the common element of the set of fixed points of a infinite family of nonexpansive mappings, the set of solutions of an equilibrium problem, and the set of solutions of variational inequality problem for an -inverse strongly monotone mapping. Peng et al. [21] introduced a new approximation scheme combining the viscosity method with parallel method for finding a common element of the set of solutions of a generalized equilibrium problem and the set of fixed points of a finite family of strict pseudocontractions and obtain a strong convergence theorem for the sequences generated by these processes in Hilbert spaces.

In the present paper, we introduce a new approximation scheme combining the viscosity method with extragradient method for finding a common element of the set of solutions of a mixed equilibrium problem, the set of fixed points of a finite family of nonexpansive mappings, and the set of solutions of the variational inequality for a monotone, Lipschitz continuous mapping. We obtain a strong convergence theorem for the sequences generated by these processes. Based on this result, we also get some new and interesting results. The results in this paper generalize and improve some well-known results in the literature.

## 2. Preliminaries

Let be a real Hilbert space with inner product and norm . Let be a nonempty closed convex subset of . Let symbols and denote strong and weak convergence, respectively. In a real Hilbert space , it is well known that

It is easy to see that (2.2) is equivalent to

A mapping of into is called monotone if

for all . A mapping of into is called -inverse strongly monotone if there exists a positive real number such that

for all . A mapping is called -Lipschitz continuous if there exists a positive real number such that

for all . It is easy to see that if is -inverse strongly monotone mappings, then is monotone and Lipschitz continuous. The converse is not true in general. The class of -inverse strongly monotone mappings does not contain some important classes of mappings even in a finite-dimensional case. For example, if the matrix in the corresponding linear complementarity problem is positively semidefinite, but not positively definite, then the mapping is monotone and Lipschitz continuous, but not -inverse strongly monotone.

Let be a monotone mapping of into . In the context of the variational inequality problem the characterization of projection (2.2) implies the following:

It is also known that satisfies Opial's condition [22], that is, for any sequence with , the inequality

A set-valued mapping is called monotone if for all , and imply . A monotone mapping is maximal if its graph of is not properly contained in the graph of any other monotone mapping. It is known that a monotone mapping is maximal if and only if for for every implies . Let A be a monotone, -Lipschitz continuous mapping of into and let be normal cone to at , that is, . Define

Then is maximal monotone and if and only if (see [23]).

For solving the mixed equilibrium problem, let us give the following assumptions for the bifunction , and the set :

(A2) is monotone, that is, for any ;

(A3) for each , is weakly upper semicontinuous;

(A5) for each , is lower semicontinuous;

We will use the following results in the sequel.

for all . Then the following conclusions hold:

where is a sequence in and is a sequence such that

Lemma 2.3.

Lemma 2.4 (see [21]).

Let and be bounded sequences in a Banach space, and let be a sequence of real numbers such that for all Suppose that for all and . Then, .

Let be a finite family of nonexpansive mappings of into itself and let be real numbers such that for every . We define a mapping of into itself as follows:

Such a mapping is called the -mapping generated by and . It is easy to see that nonexpansivity of each ensures the nonexpansivity of The concept of -mappings was introduced in [27, 28]. It is now one of the main tools in studying convergence of iterative methods for approaching a common fixed point of nonlinear mappings; more recent progresses can be found in [10, 29, 30] and the references cited therein.

Lemma 2.5 (see [29]).

Let be a nonempty closed convex set of a strictly convex Banach space. Let be nonexpansive mappings of into itself such that and let be real numbers such that for every and . Let be the -mapping generated by and . Then .

Lemma 2.6 (see [10]).

## 3. Strong Convergence Theorems

In this section, we show a strong convergence of an iterative algorithm based on both viscosity approximation method and extragradient method which solves the problem of finding a common element of the set of solutions of a mixed equilibrium problem, the set of fixed points of a finite family of nonexpansive mappings, and the set of solutions of the variational inequality for a monotone, Lipschitz continuous mapping in a Hilbert space.

Theorem 3.1.

for every where , , , , , and are sequences of numbers satisfying the conditions:

Then, , , and converge strongly to .

Proof.

for all Since is complete, there exists a unique element such that .

Put for every Let and let be a sequence of mappings defined as in Lemma 2.1. Then . From , we have

Put It is obvious that Suppose By Lemma 2.5, we know that is nonexpansive and . From (3.3), (3.6) and , we have and

for every . Therefore, is bounded. From (3.3) and (3.6), we also obtain that and are bounded.

From and the monotonicity and the Lipschitz continuity of , we have

On the other hand, from and , we have

Putting in (3.11) and in (3.12), we have

It follows from (3.9) and (3.7) that

Then, we have

Next we estimate . It follows from the definition of that

It follows that

Hence, we have

Hence by Lemma 2.4, we have . Consequently

It follows from (C1) and (C2) that .

Since for , it follows from (3.3) and (3.6) that

It follows from (C1)–(C3) and that .

By the same argument as in (3.6), we also have

From we also have . As is -Lipschitz continuous, we have .

For , we have, from Lemma 2.1,

By(3.3), (3.6), (3.32), and (3.38), we have

Hence,

It follows from (C1), (C2), and that .

Since

It follows that

Next we show that

Since is bounded, there exists a subsequence of which converges weakly to . Without loss of generality, we can assume that From , we obtain that . From , we also obtain that . From , we also obtain that . Since and is closed and convex, we obtain .

In order to show that , we first show By we know that

It follows from (A2) that

Hence,

It follows from (A4), (A5), and the weakly lower semicontinuity of , and that

For with and , let Since and , we obtain and hence . So by (A4) and the convexity of , we have

Therefore, we have

Hence we obtain as . Since is maximal monotone, we have and hence .

We next show that To see this, we observe that we may assume (by passing to a further subsequence if necessary) for Let be the -mapping generated by and . By Lemma 2.5, we know that is nonexpansive and . it follows from Lemma 2.6 that

Finally, we show that , where .

From Lemma 2.3, we have

It follows from Lemma 2.2, (3.58), and (3.60) that . From and , we have and . The proof is now complete.

## 4. Applications

By Theorem 3.1, we can obtain some new and interesting strong convergence theorems as follows.

Theorem 4.1.

for every where , , , , , and are sequences of numbers satisfying the following conditions:

Then, , , and converge strongly to .

Proof.

Putting , by Theorem 3.1 we obtain the desired result.

Theorem 4.2.

for every where , , , , , , and are sequences of numbers satisfying the following conditions:

Then, , , and converge strongly to .

Proof.

Putting , by Theorem 3.1 we obtain the desired result.

Theorem 4.3.

for every . where , , , , , , and are sequences of numbers satisfying the following conditions:

Then, , , and converge strongly to .

Proof.

Let for all , by Theorem 3.1 we obtain the desired result.

Theorem 4.4.

for every where , , and are sequences of numbers satisfying the following conditions:

Then, , , and converge strongly to .

Proof.

Let , by Theorem 3.1 we obtain the desired result.

Theorem 4.5.

for every where , , , , , and are sequences of numbers satisfying the following conditions:

Then, and converge strongly to .

Proof.

Let and let for all . Then . By Theorem 3.1 we obtain the desired result.

- (1)
Since the -inverse-strongly-monotonicity of has been weakened by the monotonicity and Lipschitz continuity of . Theorems 3.1, 4.2, and 4.4 generalize and improve Theorem 3.1 in [11], Theorem 3.1 in [12], and Theorem 3.1 in [8] and the main results in [31]. Theorem 4.5 improves Theorem 3.1 in [20].

- (2)
It is easy to see that Theorems 3.1, 4.2, and 4.4 also generalize and improve Theorems 3.1, and 4.2 in [9].

- (3)
It is clear that Theorem 4.5 generalizes, extends, and improves Theorem 3.1 in [18] and Theorem 3.1 in [19].

- (4)
Theorem 3.1 improves and extends Theorem 3.1 in [1].

## Declarations

### Acknowledgments

The authors would like to express their thanks to the referee for helpful suggestions. This research was supported by the National Center of Theoretical Sciences (South) of Taiwan, the National Natural Science Foundation of China ( Grants 10771228 and 10831009), the Natural Science Foundation of Chongqing (Grant no. CSTC, 2009BB8240), and the Research Project of Chongqing Normal University (Grant no. 08XLZ05).

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

- Ceng L-C, Yao J-C:
**A hybrid iterative scheme for mixed equilibrium problems and fixed point problems.***Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics*2008,**214**(1):186–201. 10.1016/j.cam.2007.02.022MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Bigi G, Castellani M, Kassay G:
**A dual view of equilibrium problems.***Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*2008,**342**(1):17–26. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2007.11.034MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Flam SD, Antipin AS:
**Equilibrium programming using proximal-like algorithms.***Mathematical Programming*1997,**78**(1):29–41.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Blum E, Oettli W:
**From optimization and variational inequalities to equilibrium problems.***The Mathematics Student*1994,**63**(1–4):123–145.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Goebel K, Kirk WA:
*Topics in Metric Fixed Point Theory, Cambridge Studies in Advanced Mathematics*.*Volume 28*. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK; 1990:viii+244.View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Combettes PL, Hirstoaga SA:
**Equilibrium programming in Hilbert spaces.***Journal of Nonlinear and Convex Analysis*2005,**6**(1):117–136.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Takahashi S, Takahashi W:
**Viscosity approximation methods for equilibrium problems and fixed point problems in Hilbert spaces.***Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*2007,**331**(1):506–515. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2006.08.036MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Su Y, Shang M, Qin X:
**An iterative method of solution for equilibrium and optimization problems.***Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications*2008,**69**(8):2709–2719. 10.1016/j.na.2007.08.045MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Tada A, Takahashi W:
**Weak and strong convergence theorems for a nonexpansive mapping and an equilibrium problem.***Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications*2007,**133**(3):359–370. 10.1007/s10957-007-9187-zMathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Colao V, Marino G, Xu H-K:
**An iterative method for finding common solutions of equilibrium and fixed point problems.***Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*2008,**344**(1):340–352. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2008.02.041MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Plubtieng S, Punpaeng R:
**A new iterative method for equilibrium problems and fixed point problems of nonexpansive mappings and monotone mappings.***Applied Mathematics and Computation*2008,**197**(2):548–558. 10.1016/j.amc.2007.07.075MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Chang S-S, Joseph Lee HW, Chan CK:
**A new method for solving equilibrium problem fixed point problem and variational inequality problem with application to optimization.***Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications*2009,**70**(9):3307–3319. 10.1016/j.na.2008.04.035MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Korpelevich GM:
**The extragradient method for finding saddle points and for other problems.***Matecon*1976,**12**(4):747–756.MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar - He B-S, Yang Z-H, Yuan X-M:
**An approximate proximal-extragradient type method for monotone variational inequalities.***Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*2004,**300**(2):362–374. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2004.04.068MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Gárciga Otero R, Iusem A:
**Proximal methods with penalization effects in Banach spaces.***Numerical Functional Analysis and Optimization*2004,**25**(1–2):69–91. 10.1081/NFA-120034119MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Solodov MV, Svaiter BF:
**An inexact hybrid generalized proximal point algorithm and some new results on the theory of Bregman functions.***Mathematics of Operations Research*2000,**25**(2):214–230. 10.1287/moor.25.2.214.12222MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Solodov MV:
**Convergence rate analysis of iteractive algorithms for solving variational inquality problems.***Mathematical Programming*2003,**96**(3):513–528. 10.1007/s10107-002-0369-zMathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Zeng L-C, Yao J-C:
**Strong convergence theorem by an extragradient method for fixed point problems and variational inequality problems.***Taiwanese Journal of Mathematics*2006,**10**(5):1293–1303.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Nadezhkina N, Takahashi W:
**Weak convergence theorem by an extragradient method for nonexpansive mappings and monotone mappings.***Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications*2006,**128**(1):191–201. 10.1007/s10957-005-7564-zMathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Yao Y, Yao J-C:
**On modified iterative method for nonexpansive mappings and monotone mappings.***Applied Mathematics and Computation*2007,**186**(2):1551–1558. 10.1016/j.amc.2006.08.062MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Peng J-W, Liou Y-C, Yao J-C:
**An iterative algorithm combining viscosity method with parallel method for a generalized equilibrium problem and strict pseudocontractions.***Fixed Point Theory and Applications*2009, Article ID 794178,**2009:**-21.Google Scholar - Opial Z:
**Weak convergence of the sequence of successive approximations for nonexpansive mappings.***Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society*1967,**73:**591–597. 10.1090/S0002-9904-1967-11761-0MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Rockafellar RT:
**On the maximality of sums of nonlinear monotone operators.***Transactions of the American Mathematical Society*1970,**149:**75–88. 10.1090/S0002-9947-1970-0282272-5MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Peng J-W, Yao J-C:
**A new hybrid-extragradient method for generalized mixed equilibrium problems, fixed point problems and variational inequality problems.***Taiwanese Journal of Mathematics*2008,**12**(6):1401–1432.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Xu H-K:
**Iterative algorithms for nonlinear operators.***Journal of the London Mathematical Society*2002,**66**(1):240–256. 10.1112/S0024610702003332MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Xu H-K:
**An iterative approach to quadratic optimization.***Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications*2003,**116**(3):659–678. 10.1023/A:1023073621589MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Takahashi W:
**Weak and strong convergence theorems for families of nonexpansive mappings and their applications.***Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska*1997,**51**(2):277–292.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Atsushiba S, Takahashi W:
**Strong convergence theorems for a finite family of nonexpansive mappings and applications.***Indian Journal of Mathematics*1999,**41**(3):435–453.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Takahashi W, Shimoji K:
**Convergence theorems for nonexpansive mappings and feasibility problems.***Mathematical and Computer Modelling*2000,**32**(11–13):1463–1471.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Ceng LC, Cubiotti P, Yao JC:
**Strong convergence theorems for finitely many nonexpansive mappings and applications.***Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications*2007,**67**(5):1464–1473. 10.1016/j.na.2006.06.055MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Hu CS, Cai G:
**Viscosity approximation schemes for fixed point problems and equilibrium problems and variational inequality problems.***Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications*2010,**72**(3–4):1792–1808. 10.1016/j.na.2009.09.021MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar

## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.