- Research Article
- Open Access
Convergence to Compact Sets of Inexact Orbits of Nonexpansive Mappings in Banach and Metric Spaces
© Evgeniy Pustylnik et al. 2008
- Received: 27 September 2008
- Accepted: 17 November 2008
- Published: 25 November 2008
We study the influence of computational errors on the convergence to compact sets of orbits of nonexpansive mappings in Banach and metric spaces. We first establish a convergence theorem assuming that the computational errors are summable and then provide examples which show that the summability of errors is necessary for convergence.
- Natural Number
- Compact Subset
- Point Theorem
- Convex Subset
- Fixed Point Theorem
Convergence analysis of iterations of nonexpansive mappings in Banach and metric spaces is a central topic in nonlinear functional analysis. It began with the classical Banach theorem  on the existence of a unique fixed point for a strict contraction. Banach's celebrated result also yields convergence of iterates to the unique fixed point. There are several generalizations of Banach's fixed point theorem which show that the convergence of iterates holds for larger classes of nonexpansive mappings. For instance, Rakotch  introduced the class of contractive mappings and showed that their iterates also converged to their unique fixed point.
In view of these results and their numerous applications, it is natural to ask if convergence of the iterates of nonexpansive mappings will be preserved in the presence of computational errors. In , we provide affirmative answers to this question. Related results can be found, for example, in [4, 5]. More precisely, in  we show that if all exact iterates of a given nonexpansive mapping converge (to fixed points), then this convergence continues to hold for inexact orbits with summable errors. In , we continued to study the influence of computational errors on the convergence of iterates of nonexpansive mappings in both Banach and metric spaces. We show there that if all the orbits of a nonexpansive self-mapping of a metric space converge to some closed subset of then all inexact orbits with summable errors also converge to this attractor set On the other hand, we also construct examples which show that inexact orbits may fail to converge if the errors are not summable.
Our purpose in the present paper is to consider the case where different exact orbits converge to possibly different compact subsets of In Section 2, we obtain a convergence result (see Theorem 2.1 below) under the assumption that the computational errors are summable. This result is an extension of [3, Theorem 4.2]. In Sections 3 and 4, we provide examples which show that the summability of errors is necessary for convergence (see Proposition 3.1 and Theorem 4.1).
Thus, (P1) holds and this completes the proof of Theorem 2.1.
Note that Theorem 2.1 is an extension of the following result established in .
In this section, we show that both Theorems 2.1 and 2.2 cannot, in general, be improved (cf. [6, Proposition 3.1]).
For any normed space there exists an operator such that for all the sequence converges for each and, for any sequence of positive numbers there exists a sequence with for all nonnegative integers which converges to a compact set if and only if the sequence is summable, that is,
In Section 3, we have shown that Theorems 2.1 and 2.2 cannot, in general, be improved. However, in Proposition 3.1 every point of the space is a fixed point of the operator and the inexact orbits tend to infinity. In this section, we construct an operator on a certain complete metric space (a bounded, closed, and convex subset of a Banach space) such that all of its orbits converge to its unique fixed point, and for any nonsummable sequence of errors and any initial point, there exists an inexact orbit which does not converge to any compact set (cf. [6, Theorem 4.1]).
and the following property holds.
We precede the proof of Theorem 4.1 with the following lemma.
This completes the proof of Lemma 4.2.
Thus, the assumption made for also holds for Therefore, we have constructed by induction a sequence of points and a sequence of nonnegative integers which satisfy (4.30) and (4.31) for all integers respectively, and (4.32) for all integers
This research was supported by the Israel Science Foundation (Grant no. 647/07), the Fund for the Promotion of Research at the Technion, and by the Technion President's Research Fund.
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