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  • Research Article
  • Open Access

Fixed Points of Two-Sided Fractional Matrix Transformations

Fixed Point Theory and Applications20072007:041930

  • Received: 16 March 2006
  • Accepted: 20 November 2006
  • Published:


Let and be complex matrices, and consider the densely defined map on matrices. Its fixed points form a graph, which is generically (in terms of ) nonempty, and is generically the Johnson graph ; in the nongeneric case, either it is a retract of the Johnson graph, or there is a topological continuum of fixed points. Criteria for the presence of attractive or repulsive fixed points are obtained. If and are entrywise nonnegative and is irreducible, then there are at most two nonnegative fixed points; if there are two, one is attractive, the other has a limited version of repulsiveness; if there is only one, this fixed point has a flow-through property. This leads to a numerical invariant for nonnegative matrices. Commuting pairs of these maps are classified by representations of a naturally appearing (discrete) group. Special cases (e.g., is in the radical of the algebra generated by and ) are discussed in detail. For invertible size two matrices, a fixed point exists for all choices of if and only if has distinct eigenvalues, but this fails for larger sizes. Many of the problems derived from the determination of harmonic functions on a class of Markov chains.


  • Differential Geometry
  • Matrix Transformation
  • Computational Biology
  • Fractional Matrix


Authors’ Affiliations

Mathematics Department, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5, Canada


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© David Handelman. 2007

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.