# Ergodic Retractions for Families of Asymptotically Nonexpansive Mappings

- Shahram Saeidi
^{1, 2}Email author

**2010**:281362

**DOI: **10.1155/2010/281362

© The Author(s). 2010

**Received: **2 October 2009

**Accepted: **14 March 2010

**Published: **25 April 2010

## Abstract

We prove some theorems for the existence of ergodic retractions onto the set of common fixed points of a family of asymptotically nonexpansive mappings. Our results extend corresponding results of Benavides and Ramírez (2001), and Li and Sims (2002).

## 1. Introduction

Let be a Banach space and a nonempty closed and convex subset of . We recall some definitions.

Definition 1.1.

*asymptotically nonexpansive*if there exists a sequence of positive numbers satisfying the property and

(v)retraction if . A subset of is called a nonexpansive retract of if either or there exists a retraction of onto which is a nonexpansive mapping.

Definition 1.2.

We say that a nonempty closed convex subset of satisfies property with respect to

(ii)a semigroup of mappings if for every where

- (i)
A mapping is said to satisfy the -fixed point property ( -fpp) if has a fixed point in every nonempty closed convex subset of which satisfies with respect to .

- (ii)
A semigroup is said to satisfy the -fpp if has a common fixed point in every nonempty closed convex subset of which satisfies with respect to the semigroup .

- (iii)
A family is said to satisfy the -fpp if has a common fixed point in every nonempty closed convex subset of which satisfies with respect to each .

In 1965, Kirk [1] proved that if is a weakly compact convex subset of a Banach space with normal structure, then every nonexpansive mapping has a fixed point. (A nonempty convex subset of a normed linear space is said to have normal structure if each bounded convex subset of consisting of more than one point contains a nondiametral point). Goebel and Kirk [2] proved that if is assumed to be uniformly convex, then every asymptotically nonexpansive self-mapping of has a fixed point. This was extended to mappings of asymptotically nonexpansive type by Kirk in [3]. However, whether normal structure implies the existence of fixed points for mappings of asymptotically nonexpansive type is a natural and still open question. Li and Sims [4] proved the following fixed point result in the case that has uniform normal structure (It is known that a space with uniform normal structure is reflexive and that all uniformly convex or uniformly smooth Banach spaces have uniform normal structure).

Theorem 1.4.

Suppose is a Banach space with uniform normal structure; is a nonempty bounded subset of . Then

(i)every continuous and asymptotically nonexpansive type mapping satisfies -fpp;

(ii)every semigroup of asymptotically nonexpansive type mappings on such that is continuous on for each satisfies -fpp.

On the other hand, Bruck [5] initiated the study of the structure of the fixed point set in a general Banach space : if is a weakly compact convex subset of and is nonexpansive and satisfies a conditional fixed point property, then is a nonexpansive retract of . The same author [6] used this fact to derive the existence of fixed points for a commuting family of nonexpansive mappings. See, for example, [7, 8] for some related results.

Benavides and Ramírez [9] studied the structure of the set of fixed points for (weakly) asymptotically nonexpansive mappings.

Theorem 1.5.

Let be a Banach space and a nonempty weakly compact convex subset of . Assume that every asymptotically nonexpansive self-mapping of satisfies the -fpp. Then for any commuting family of asymptotically nonexpansive self-mappings of , the common fixed point set of , , is a nonempty nonexpansive retract of .

In this paper, we prove some theorems to guarantee the existence of nonexpansive retractions onto the common fixed points of some families of (weakly) asymptotically nonexpansive (type) mappings. The results obtained in this paper extend in some sense, for example, Theorems 1.4 and 1.5, above.

## 2. Nonexpansive Retractions for Families of Weakly Asymptotically Nonexpansive Mappings

Theorem 2.1.

Let be a nonempty weakly compact convex subset of a Banach space , and a family of weakly asymptotically nonexpansive mappings on such that . Assume one of the following assumptions is satisfied:

(b) is a nonexpansive retract of .

Then for each , there exists a nonexpansive retraction from onto , the common fixed points of , such that , and every closed convex -invariant subset of is also -invariant.

Proof.

So, we get . Since this is so for each and belongs to , it follows that and .

We note that , ( ). Since , every closed convex -invariant subset of is also -invariant and consequently -invariant, ( ). So it is easy to see that , ( ). Therefore, for every , the set is an -invariant subset of . So, considering the fact that , we obtain . Now, we can repeat the argument used in the last paragraph to get the desired result.

A nonexpansive retraction satisfying the thesis of Theorem 2.1 is usually called an ergodic retraction (see e.g., [10, 11]).

Combining Theorem 1.5 [9, Theorem ] and Theorem 2.1(a), we get the following improvement of Theorem 1.5.

Corollary 2.2.

Let be a Banach space and a nonempty weakly compact convex subset of . Assume that every asymptotically nonexpansive self-mapping of satisfies -fpp. Then for any commuting family of asymptotically nonexpansive self-mappings of and for each , there exists a nonexpansive retraction from onto , such that , and every closed convex -invariant subset of is also -invariant.

## 3. Ergodic Retractions for a Semigroup of Asymptotically Nonexpansive Type

Assume that is a semigroup and is the space of all bounded real-valued functions defined on with supremum norm. For and , we define elements and in by and for each , respectively. An element of is said to be a mean on if . We often write instead of for and . A mean is said to be invariant if for each and . is said to be amenable if there is an invariant mean on . As is well known, is amenable when it is a commutative semigroup [12].

The following result which we need is well known (see [13]).

Lemma 3.1.

Let be a function of a semigroup into such that the weak closure of is weakly compact. Then, for any , there exists a unique element in such that for all . Moreover, if is a mean, then

We can write by . As a direct consequence of Lemma 3.1, we have the following lemma.

Lemma 3.2.

Let be a nonempty closed convex subset of a Banach space , a semigroup of weakly asymptotically nonexpansive mappings on such that weak closure of is weakly compact for each , and a mean on .

If we write instead of , then the following hold.

(iii)If is invariant, then for each and is a nonexpansive mapping from into itself.

Proof.

The following is our main result which is an improvement of Theorem 1.4 [4, Theorem ].

Theorem 3.3.

Suppose is a Banach space with uniform normal structure; is a nonempty bounded closed and convex subset of ; is a semigroup of asymptotically nonexpansive type mappings on such that is continuous on for each . Then there exists a nonexpansive retraction from onto , such that for each , and every closed convex -invariant subset of is also -invariant.

Proof.

We will prove that for all . For a given , consider the set Then is a nonempty weakly compact convex subset of , because is convex and compact. Take and such as , for some . There exists , such that . Consider a subnet of such that exists for every . Now, taking , we have . Since is nonexpansive, and for every , it follows that and then . Thus satisfies the property with respect to the semigroup . Now, from Theorem 1.4, it follows that . From this and the argument used in the proof of Theorem 2.1, we obtain . Since this holds for each , .

## Declarations

### Acknowledgments

The author would like to thank the referee for useful comments and for pointing out an oversight regarding an earlier draft of this paper. This paper is dedicated to Professor William Art Kirk. This research was in part supported by a Grant from IPM (no. 88470021).

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

- Kirk WA:
**A fixed point theorem for mappings which do not increase distances.***Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society*1965,**72:**1004–1006.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Goebel K, Kirk WA:
**A fixed point theorem for asymptotically nonexpansive mappings.***Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society*1972,**35:**171–174. 10.1090/S0002-9939-1972-0298500-3MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Kirk WA:
**Fixed point theorems for non-lipschitzian mappings of asymptotically nonexpansive type.***Israel Journal of Mathematics*1974,**17:**339–346. 10.1007/BF02757136MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Li G, Sims B:
**Fixed point theorems for mappings of asymptotically nonexpansive type.***Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications*2002,**50:**1085–1091. 10.1016/S0362-546X(01)00744-1MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Bruck RE:
**Properties of fixed-point sets of nonexpansive mappings.***Transactions of the American Mathematical Society*1973,**179:**251–262.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Bruck RE:
**A common fixed point theorem for a commuting family of nonexpansive mappings.***Pacific Journal of Mathematics*1974,**53:**59–71.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Saeidi S:
**Ergodic retractions for amenable semigroups in Banach spaces with normal structure.***Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications*2009,**71**(7–8):2558–2563. 10.1016/j.na.2009.01.091MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Saeidi S:
**The retractions onto the common fixed points of some families and semigroups of mappings.***Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications*2009,**71**(3–4):1171–1179. 10.1016/j.na.2008.11.049MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Benavides Td, Ramírez PL:
**Structure of the fixed point set and common fixed points of asymptotically nonexpansive mappings.***Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society*2001,**129**(12):3549–3557. 10.1090/S0002-9939-01-06141-XMathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Kirk WA, Sims B:
*Handbook of Metric Fixed Point Theory*. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands; 2001:xiv+703.View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Lau AT, Shioji N, Takahashi W:
**Existence of nonexpansive retractions for amenable semigroups of nonexpansive mappings and nonlinear ergodic theorems in Banach spaces.***Journal of Functional Analysis*1999,**161**(1):62–75. 10.1006/jfan.1998.3352MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Day MM:
**Amenable Semigroups.***Illinois Journal of Mathematics*1957,**1:**509–544.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Takahashi W:
**A nonlinear ergodic theorem for an amenable semigroup of nonexpansive mappings in a Hilbert space.***Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society*1981,**81**(2):253–256. 10.1090/S0002-9939-1981-0593468-XMathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar

## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.